Deciding Where to Live in The Suburb: Linking Utility-Maximization and Residential Mobility in Polycentric Urban Region Context

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Abstract Summary
The decentralization of employment to suburb has created numerous new attractive sub-centers, where residential and economic activities were mixed together. This process, termed as post-suburbanization, could be found globally with some variation between countries. The emergence of post-suburbanization and its polycentric spatial structure has been argued to have double spatial implications: changes population mixing and changes in commuting pattern. In a polycentric structure, the commuting pattern has become more complex with increase of inter-suburban flows. The existence of such pattern has not been well comprehended, whereas limited attempt to explained cross-commuting were still presumed that utility-maximization related factors as a major cause. Despite of strong indication of the monocentric model influences, to the best of our knowledge, no evidence has been provided regarding to the role of utility maximization in polycentric urban setting. The non-traditional commuting phenomenon was showing that employment suburbanization process, did not followed by workers residential adjustment. Thus, question arises whether utility-maximization factors was also involved in a residential adjustment problem within polycentric urban settings? This paper examines intra-urban mobility from a spatial fragmentation perspective. Focusing on the frontier areas of polycentric urban region, each municipality within the region is treated as a decision-making unit which intend to maximizing co-location between residential and employment uses. Hence, each municipality should provide a competitive environment to attract residential movement, rather than commuters. This paper is aimed to provide empirical evidence, validating the importance of utility-maximizing parameters, derived from the monocentric model, in the context of post-suburbanized polycentric urban region. The main question is to which extent the disparity of residential mobility between municipalities could be linked to the differences on such parameters. This study took the case study of Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA), a polycentric urban region in Indonesia. The study compares utility-maximizing parameters value between its suburban municipalities and their migration flows. Such value was obtained by analyzing the data from the National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), one of the most reliable cost of living survey in Indonesia. The analysis was simply taken by comparing the aggregative-mean of income, housing-cost and transportation cost data from each municipal in JMA. Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) was used for measure how these utility-maximizing parameters relate with in- and out- migration flows on suburban areas. This paper comes with two conclusions. First, monocentric model utility-maximization parameters, were still consistent to be used in polycentric setting, but limited for housing cost only. In polycentric structure, the trade-off between housing and transportation cost does not merely depend on location. Tenurial status was also playing an important role on residential location decision. Despite of having much lower income, household which decide to choose to rent were burdened with high housing cost, but relatively lower transport cost. On contrary, selecting permanent tenure would cost less for housing, but charge more on transportation. Secondly, suburban municipal with lowest utility value tends to be most efficient in attracting in-migrant. Surprisingly, they also produce some high score on pushing migrants out. Meanwhile, adjacent location with similar utility value does not display the same manner. Instead, developing post-suburbia, a significant major employment location creating a numerous out-migration flows to their inner-urban area. This phenomenon shows that residential mobility within suburban areas occurs not for a lower housing or transportation cost, nor to get near to major employment location. Further research on urban mobility within a polycentric setting should move beyond utility-maximization approach, and tried to identify the heterogeneity and behavioral aspect of mobile workers.
Abstract ID :
ISO283
Submission Type
Draft presentation :
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Ph.D. Student
,
Institut Teknologi Bandung
School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung
School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung
School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung

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