Measurement of spatial equity : a case study of nursing institution

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Abstract Summary
Equity and justice have always been important norms in the field of urban planning. With the gradual deepening of understanding of residential environment, the research context of equity and justice related to location is becoming more and more sophisticated. Recently, varieties of subjects Including Public Health and Geography focus on the inequity of public resources in spatial distribution and how to measure the degree of this gap. In general, the mainstream measurement methods can be summarized into two categories: (1) The description of phenomenon caused by the spatial inequities, and accessibility is a typical method of this type. (2) the direct quantification of inequity, such as Gink Coefficient which is originated from the economics field and introduced into the measurement of health equity, and Getis-Ord General G, together with Moran’ index is the most commonly method used into the general spatial autocorrelation. But all these measurements have their own limitations. Some studies have even focused on results only and neglected the interpretation of concept of equity in the specific research, resulting in a confusing concept of equity related to location in different research contexts. In this paper, based on the overall literature review of the concept of equity in the study using these methods and a summary of their specific context of the measurement using, nursing institution in Shanghai, China are regarded as a typical case to practice these methods and compare the differences in using. Meantime, the impact of the politics and planning related to this special facility is also been considered. Results show that, accessibility of nursing institution among elderly groups is much different under different research distance, and the overall trend seems like the research units in suburb appears higher accessibility than those in highly urbanized area. And Gink Coefficient helps us determine the proportion of the elderly population in different reachable areas in Shanghai is within a reasonable range. However, Getis-Ord General G provide reliable evidence that the existence of the aggregation combined by the high-value units. It indicates that there are inequities among the distribution of aged-nursing resources, and Getis-Ord Local G help us to find the specific boundaries of these areas. In general, in the study of the equity related to location, accessibility can only reflect the differences phenomenon in distribution, but it is not clear to describe this gap to what extent, and it’s difficult to achieve the possibility of comparison among different periods and different subjects. The Gini coefficient often focuses on the unfairness of the distribution of people, but ignored the aggregation characteristics of the spatial dimension, which the analysis of spatial autocorrelation can make up. All these methods proved that it’s necessary to consider both the spatial distribution of supply and demand. And the discussion about equity related to location should be strictly qualified in study,
Abstract ID :
ISO362
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Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute Co.Ltd.
Tongji university
Tongji university, College of architecture and urban planning

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