TRACK 6: Changing environment and risks Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Sumba B)
Sep 11, 2019 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190911T1130 20190911T1300 Europe/Amsterdam 6.5 Climate Change and Operating Cities – Metabolism

The biggest indirect-and therefore a lot less directly mitigatable - impact climate change has on mankind is through the changes in the ecosystems. This puts our food base at risk, and it threatens other species. This session will investigate the order of challenge and identify possible ways forward.

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Sumba B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org

The biggest indirect-and therefore a lot less directly mitigatable - impact climate change has on mankind is through the changes in the ecosystems. This puts our food base at risk, and it threatens other species. This session will investigate the order of challenge and identify possible ways forward.

How to Plan in a Volcano-related Disaster Prone Area? Lesson Learned from Adaptive Spatial Planning in Dieng Plateau, Central JavaView Abstract
Case Study/Research Project 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Located in the Asia Pacific’s Ring of Fire as well as has one of the longest shorelines in the world, Indonesia is prone to various kind of disasters. Over the past few years, Indonesia has made headlines around the world due to devastating natural disasters that resulted in environmental damage and thousands of casualties. One of the area that has multiple disaster risks is Dieng Plateau in Central Java. The infamous geopark is prone to at least from landslides, toxic gases, and earthquakes. Based on the data from Local Agency for Disaster Management, the area has a medium risk for landslides, with an average occurence of four to six times each year. It also sits in the I, II, and III levels of earthquake. The deadliest disaster in Dieng Plateau is CO2 toxic gases-with Sinila, Timbang, and Candradimuka Craters are actively emit the toxic gases sometimes. In 2011 and 2013, more than 5.000 residents were evacuated and 20 hectares of agriculture land damaged due to CO2 toxic gases from Timbang and Kalisat craters and landslides. In 2018, Sileri Crater located in Dieng Volcano area was suddenly erupting phreatic. Batur is one of the sub-districts in Dieng Plateau that is planned to be an urban area currently consists of 3 villages: Batur, Sumberejo, and Pesurenan. Served as the commercial center to support tourism activity in the region, a specific approach needs to be taken to develop the area more carefully. Under the ‘Detailed Spatial Plan of Batur Urban Area’ project, the consultant introduces adaptive planning for disasters by optimizing land-use in disaster-prone areas. The benefit of this study is expected to be a lesson-learned for stakeholders to promote resilient development. The result obtained from this project is an adaptive spatial planning that is tailored to the region's disaster risk profile and aimed at achieving a higher standard of living.
Presenters
RS
Raka Suryandaru
Vice Secretary General Of CPD, Indonesian Association Of Urban And Regional Planners (IAP)
VN
Vinda Norzistya
DA
Diva Amadea
MN
Maya Nuryani
Spatial planning and design for food security ; Building Positive Rural-urban Linkages View Abstract
Full Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
SPATIAL PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR FOOD SECURITY. Food is vital for human survival. Food has had a significant impact on our built environment since the beginning of human life. The process of feeding oneself was most people’s primary job for the greater part of human history. Urban Migration moved people away from rural and natural landscapes on which they had been dependent for food and other amenities for centuries. [ steinsholt.H, 2015] Emergence of the cities leads to a new paradigm where the consumers get their food from rural hinterland where the main production of food products happens. [STEEL, C. (2013)] In a globalized world with an unprecedented on-going process of urbanization, There is an ever reducing clarity between urban and rural , the paper argues that the category of the urban & rural as a spatial and morphological descriptor has to be reformulated, calling for refreshing, innovating and formulating the way in which urban and rural resource flows happen . India is projected to be more than 50% urban by 2050 (currently 29%). The next phase of economic and social development will be focused on urbanization of its rural areas. This 50 %, which will impact millions of people, will not come from cities, but from the growth of rural towns and small cities. Urbanization is accelerated through Government schemes such as JNNURM ( Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ) , PMAY (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana), 100 smart cities challenge, Rurban Mission are formulated with developmental mindset. The current notions of ‘development’ are increasing travel distances, fuels consumption, food imports, deterioration of biodiversity, pollution, temperatures, cost of living. The enormity of the issue is realized when the cumulative effect of all cities is addressed. Urban biased development becomes an ignorant choice, causing the death of rural and deterioration of ecological assets. Most people live in places that are distant from production fields has been observed as an increasing trend. Physical separation of people from food production has resulted in a degree of indifference about where and how food is produced, making food a decontextualized market product as said by Halweil, 2002. The resulting Psychological separation of people from the food supply and the impacts this may have on long term sustainability of food systems. Methodology : . Sharing learnings about planning for food security through Field surveys, secondary and tertiary sources. Based on the study following parameters : 1. Regional system of water 2. Landforms 3. Soil type 4. Transportation networks 5. Historical evolution 6. Urban influences A case study of Delhi, India, as a site to study a scenario that can be an alternative development model for the Peri-urban regions of the city. To use the understanding of spatial development and planning to formulate guidelines for sustainable development of a region that would foster food security. Outcomes : To identify systems that reinforce agriculture as a green infrastructure in areas that are close to the urban centers, as a defense against an urban-biased expansion of cities. To strengthen the presence of the local community by providing healthcare, education and social infrastructure and locating facilities by the understanding its cultural fabric. Facilitate young farmers to develop scientific and technical skills, business and management skills to practice farming with an industrial mindset, thereby creating productive landscape and employment opportunities. To protect and enhance the ecological assets of the place. Principles to enable this project : 1. Integration of system: Drainage, Movement, Ecological, Agricultural 2. Morphology of interface 3. Function at interface 4. Typology of buildings at the interface
Presenters Aishwarya Talluri
Project Associate , School Of Planning And Architecture , New Delhi
EARTHQUAKE POST-DISASTER RELOCATION IDENTIFICATION IN MEUREDU PIDIE JAYA NANGROE ACEH DARUSSALAMView Abstract
Case Study/Research Project 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Indonesia’s geographical position was crossed by the world’s active fault lines which are prone to earthquake. Physically and non physically was affected by earthquake. Growing trend of disaster was induced displacement to reduce risk by relocation, adaptation and protection were means mitigation. High risk of earthquake disasters area was identified to reducing the impact of earthquake risk by the government and stakeholders. Through micro zonation mapping of earthquake-prone areas known to areas that have a high risk of earthquakes. The determination of the areas that are in active fault becomes a protected area for fault lines was the regulation by Indonesia Government. The existence of settlements around active faults can improve settlement development and population density. Restrictions on the development of settlements around active faults are as far as 20 meters from active faults. Land management can be an effort in reducing disaster risk through land consolidation and land pooling. Identification of land requirements and conformity to spatial planning in determining locations for regional relocation in efforts to reduce disaster risk. The purpose of this study is to identify suitable locations in the relocation in terms of physical and spatial plan. Through the GIS analysis method by combining micro zonation and active faults against spatial regulation. The results of the analysis show that there are 78 building units in active faults, 1 unit of public facilities, and buildings that have a high risk for collapsing a total of 179 units. The total land requirement in Meuredu District is needed for the relocation location which is 3.62 ha and the availability of land is 23 ha.
Presenters
DM
Dani Muttaqin
Director, Real Estat Indonesia
Embodied Carbon Emission Analysis of Industrial Sector Based on Input-Output Analysis : Case Study in Bitung City, Indonesia. View Abstract
Full Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Economic development in Indonesia has created a negative impact on natural resources and the environment because it is more concerned with economic aspects, without considering social and environmental aspects. The Paris Agreement central aim is to keep a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial level. Indonesia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) includes an unconditional Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 29 percent against a 2030 business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. Bitung SEZ has the status of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) for the field of fisheries, oil industry, and other logistical support in the eastern region of Indonesia recently launched by the Indonesian government since 2014. Based on data from Statistics of Bitung City (BPS), Gross Domestic Regional Product (GRDP) at Current Prices in Bitung City in 2017 valued at 14.09 trillion rupiah, experiencing an increase compared to 2016 worth 12.68 trillion Rupiah. While GDRP on the basis of the constant price of 2017 is worth 10.13 trillion rupiah, and in 2016 it is worth 9.54 trillion rupiah. The largest share of GDRP according to successive business fields in Bitung City in 2017 was the Processing Industry 33.63 percent. The aim of this paper is to build a model of environment-economy linkages by using Environmentally extended Input-Output analysis. The paper presents the conceptual and analytical framework of the Input-Output approach to the Bitung City. The model uses annual Input-Output (I-O) tables, support estimation equations for technical coefficients, macro indicators and other variables. The I-O Model is based on the Bitung City I-O tables and the methodology developed by Wassily Leontied. The Model databases uses the 2017 I-O tables and data series provided by Statistics of Bitung City (BPS) for 58 sectors of the economy, which are aggregated into seventeen sectors. These analysis lead to two main conclusions. First, the results showed that there were three economic sectors that had a major impact on environmental degradation, which are: (1) the corporate services sector, (2) the sector of providing food and drink (3) the electricity and gas procurement sector. Second, green economy policy-making.
Presenters Sani Nuraini
Fresh Graduate, Universitas Islam Bandung
Identifying climate resilience challenges in Vietnamese cities: case studies of Can Tho and Da NangView Abstract
Full Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
This paper aims to identify and discuss major issues regarding urban climate resilience in urban areas in Vietnam, through an investigation on the Can Tho and Da Nang, two medium-size cities located in the Southwest and Centre regions of the country. It starts with a short introduction on the concept and framework of urban resilience and a quick investigation on the understanding and application of the concept in the context of Vietnam. After that, using official figures sources from the technical departments and Climate Change Office of the two cities, the paper comparatively points out the urban resilience challenges coming from natural conditions, urbanization patterns, climate change related conditions and risks of the two cities. Subsequently, data collected from the direct observation, interviews and consultation with various stakeholders in Can Tho and Da Nang, including experts working for organizations, technical departments, districts and wards as well as selected residents from vulnerable areas, show that resilience capacity of the two cities is still limited with weak coordination mechanism and plans, uncomprehensive understanding of risks due to the absence of data and empirical analysis and lack of financial resources. Besides, although being the main beneficiary of development projects, the participation of citizens is limited, and community resilience are not sufficiently addressed and promptly guided. To address the resilience issues above, in the conclusion some policy implications for Vietnamese cities will be discussed and prospective research directions on resilience topic in Vietnam will be proposed.
Presenters Thai Son Pham
Senior Lecturer, Vietnamese-German University
Promoting Water Resilience in Semarang: Building a Coalition through the Water as Leverage (WaL) ProgramView Abstract
Case Study/Research Project 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Like many cities in the region, Semarang faces mounting challenges related to climate change and rapid urbanization. In the past decade, Semarang has been engaging in a range of national and international networks to promote resiliency – from community programs to large scale infrastructure. This attention and engagement from local and global network of actors, collaborators, and donors cumulatively contribute to Semarang’s strategic role in Indonesia as well as a leader in urban climate change mitigation and adaptation practice. More recently, Semarang is chosen as one of the three cities in Asia for the Water as Leverage program initiated by the Government of Netherlands in 2018 - a new opportunity for the city to not only tackle water-related issues and climate change, but also its various urbanization challenges. Semarang is compounded by a range of interrelated water issues from river and tidal floods, lack of clean water supply, drought and land subsidence. Government efforts tend to be responsive and partial, primarily focusing on mitigating tidal inundation occurring in coastal areas. However, with rapid urbanization along the watershed, its hilly catchment areas are also experiencing floods and intensifying downstream risks. The lack of comprehensive efforts from upstream to downstream is a result of complex institutional structures involving city, province and the national government. Indeed, collaboration and good cooperation amongst all stakeholders are key in realizing integrated water management from upland to coast. This paper documents and examines the Water as Leverage program as an opportunity to build a coalition amongst disparate stakeholders to promote water resilience in Semarang. Some key questions to be addressed are: (1) how has the cumulative experience of resiliency building in Semarang contributed to the success (or at least so far) of the program? (2) how has the proactive role of the government contributed? (3) how the alignment of research and engagement between international teams and city vision was critical? This study uses qualitative methods to unpack the problems and issues faced by each stakeholder, more importantly, the actions taken and yet to be done to create institutional alignments. Methodologies include stakeholder mapping, institutional capacity analysis, and assessment of opportunities for collaboration. As the process is ongoing, interim results have demonstrated that there are opportunities to build a strong coalition. The intensive research and engagement from the design teams and knowledge partners have resulted in a good commitment of the government in local, provincial, and national levels - further supported by the active involvement of local stakeholders, the including Semarang Advisory Councils consist of Professors of local Universities, various local community groups, and local NGOs.
Presenters Wiwandari Handayani
Lecture/researcher, Diponegoro University
An assessment and delineation of Socio-economic Resilience Landscapes of the Region based on the inherent latent factors of vulnerabilities View Abstract
Draft Presentation 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
In this era of climate change and rapid urbanization, it is important to understand the metabolism of the regional system to achieve socio-economic resilience. The concept of socio-economic resilience of the region is used to refer the capacity of systems of the region to absorb or adapt shock and vulnerabilities. Broadly, the overall socio-economic resilience of the system is affected by sudden external shocks and inherent latent weak conditions. Latent weak conditions slowly make the regional system weak and more susceptible to vulnerabilities. It is difficult to directly observe the latent factors of socio-economic resilience since these constructs are unobserved or hidden. However, the possible method of measuring the latent factors of socio-economic resilience have been done from the data collected on related variables that can be directly observed and measured. The development of sustainable cities and region by providing a socio-economic resilience measurement framework in terms of latent factors of vulnerability and dimensions of resilience could be the major contribution of the study and it will aid policy-makers in the planning of socio-economically resilient region. The following paper focuses on the determination of factors of the inherent latent weak conditions of socio-economic vulnerabilities and their relationships. The main objective of the paper is to assess socio-economic resilience based on the interrelationship between the levels of vulnerability of susceptible regions and indicators of socio-economic resilience. In the first part of the study, identification and extraction of the determining factors have been done in following two categories – adaptive capacity and sensitivity factors, followed by the study of principal components and dispersion analysis of following two categories. Then in the second part of the study, income-inequality measurement and nesting-shift-share analysis of the susceptible regions has been done to understand the income and employment scenario of the 19 districts of West Bengal, India. Using extracted secondary data, under the two category, factors were determined and its nesting is analyzed in the following 19 districts of West Bengal, India to assess the interrelationships of levels of vulnerability and indicators of socio-economic resilience. Later using GIS, Temporal analysis has been done to visualize the spatial relationships of levels of vulnerability and Socio-economic Resilience. Delineation of levels of socio-economic vulnerability of the region based on inherent latent weak factors of socio-economic vulnerabilities would give a platform to policy-makers for a better understanding of the metabolism of the region through identified latent weak areas contributing to the susceptibility to vulnerabilities of the region.
Presenters Shivangi Singh Parmar
Research Scholar, IIT Kharagpur
Relict ecosystems in urbanized contexts. Challenges and opportunities to renature cities, ecological restoration, and biodiversity enhancement through planning for sustainability.View Abstract
Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
How can planning assist cities to transit from natural resources consumer and waste producers that impact the environment, into natural spaces that enables ecological processes that support life, sustains flora and fauna, enhance biodiversity, and promote sustainable development values? This paper argues this can be done through comprehensive planning strategies that promote a regional and urban environmental development project that enhances renaturing cities from an ecological restoration base. By presenting a case study on a protected area, located in Morelos, Mexico, now embedded into an urbanized context, this explorative research reflects on the challenges and opportunities of relict ecosystems to trigger leverage: renature cities, ecological restoration, biodiversity enhancement, and urban metabolism retrofit. The paper analyzes in a relational manner the challenges ecosystems which formerly ranged over a vast expanse, but are now narrowly confined in urbanized contexts face: informal settlement on core protected areas; environmental pollution, as natural elements such as rivers have become the dump of urban flows; biodiversity loss. The methodology is based on different concepts, methods, and techniques, coming from urban environmental disciplines, which have been conveniently integrated. A body of relational matrices has been developed, to analyze the urban –environmental variables as a whole. This methodology allows us to qualify and to quantify the local and regional environmental impact of cities on protected areas and offers a quick assessment of urban sustainability, which includes metabolic flows. The vision of environmental services, river restoration, urban biodiversity enhancement, are also considered into the study. As a result of the analysis, the paper envisages the opportunities to renature cities by linking relict ecosystems in a way that urban development strategies can assist recovering the structure and functionality of ecosystems, and through this ecological restoration increase urban biodiversity, environmental conservation, and protection, and give cities esthetic naturalness. By doing so, this piece of work shed light on new ideas that can break down silos between urban and environmental planning and get to a more holistic and sustainable perspective approach to city-making.
Presenters Natalie Rosales
Researcher, Conacyt-El Colegio Mexiquense
JR
Juan Antonio Reynoso
Protected Area Director, Sustainable Development Secretary
Effects of ongoing infrastructure improvements in relation to planning policy for flood resilience and historic urban morphological development in JakartaView Abstract
Draft Presentation 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
This paper explores historic institutional responses to flooding and the influences of such planning policies on the spatial development of Jakarta within the context of pressures from severe flooding and rapid urban development set against a background of significant recent institutional change from the national to the local level in recent years. This study will focus on the local and city scales, considering recent changes to patterns of urban spatial development across Jakarta as new flood defences and mitigation measures have been incorporated in various parts of the city which form part of a wider network of flood and water management infrastructure currently being implemented by local and national government. Several sites will be analysed using urban morphology with GIS-based mapping and satellite imagery to understand the impact of this new infrastructure on existing communities in different parts of Jakarta and the relationship between typology, context and decision-making at the local and national governmental levels. While this article will study spatial impacts at the local scale, it will examine how these disparate sites form part of a wider trend at the extent of the city-region, because the nature of flooding means that both upstream and downstream areas are affected and the origins of problems can arise far from visible disasters. Using document analysis, newspaper articles and historic maps and satellite images, a historic institutionalist approach will be used to understand the policy context and decision-making process involved with the practical realisation of flood-resiliency in the city, which has resulted in a number of side-effects, including displacement of local residents, problems of land tenure, access to affordable housing, severance of social networks and interruption of local livelihoods.
Presenters David Mathewson
MA Urban Design Course Leader, Lecturer In International Planning + Urban Design, University Of Westminster
Vice Secretary General of CPD
,
Indonesian Association of Urban and Regional Planners (IAP)
Project associate
,
School of Planning and Architecture , New Delhi
Director
,
Real Estat Indonesia
Fresh graduate
,
Universitas Islam Bandung
Senior Lecturer
,
Vietnamese-German University
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