TRACK 2: Besides the megacity and other cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor)
Sep 10, 2019 09:00 AM - 11:00 AM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190910T0900 20190910T1100 Europe/Amsterdam 2.1 Beyond Megacities: Key Challenges and Alternatives

Discussions under Track 2 broadly explore two key areas – the contemporary urbanisation context under which the megacities, their scale economies and their regional linkages are embedded, and what the possible alternative spatial models are. These two broad themes then lead to more detailed explorations around seven sub-themes. This introductory session, involving keynote speakers from all the sub-themes would touch upon key challenges and alternatives in planning at a regional scale and lead to further deliberations under specific sub-topics.

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org

Discussions under Track 2 broadly explore two key areas – the contemporary urbanisation context under which the megacities, their scale economies and their regional linkages are embedded, and what the possible alternative spatial models are. These two broad themes then lead to more detailed explorations around seven sub-themes. This introductory session, involving keynote speakers from all the sub-themes would touch upon key challenges and alternatives in planning at a regional scale and lead to further deliberations under specific sub-topics.

The Informal Syndicate Raj: Emerging urban governance challenges in newly incorporated villages of Bidhan Nagar Municipal Corporation, West BengalView Abstract
Full Paper 09:00 AM - 11:00 AM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 07:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 09:00:00 UTC
Peri-urban spaces in the Global South are regarded as sites of radical and often violent of transformation of social and spatial structures, of brutal dispossessions of lives and livelihoods to make way for speculative real estate development and the accumulation of capital through the expropriation and commodification of land. However, a host of state and non-state actors such as developers, aspiring middle-class urban dwellers reimagine these sites as the promising new ground for becoming “world class”. Scholars have pointed out to the governance experiments, the entrepreneurship of the state and the speculative urbanism that characterises such territorial transformations (Kennedy and Sood 2018, Gururani and Kose 2015). However, according to Vijaybaskar and Varadarajan (2018) there is little evidence to suggest that rapid metropolitan expansion into rural hinterlands has effectively managed to integrate rural areas or the kinds of transformations engendered in the local economies and spatial structures. Inclusive growth is but a mirage. Instead, new forms of precarity, impoverishment, and insecurities emerge amongst the local, erstwhile agriculture based population. This has given rise to a new politics and shifting balance of powers through emergent networks of actors seeking to stake claim to the periphery – rentier classes, land brokers, formation and consolidation of the power of informal authorities who control the buying and selling of land and over labour and construction contracts. When urbanisation is thrust upon villages abutting urban areas through politically motivated administrative boundary changes, the spatial and infrastructural inequalities between the urban core and peripheral villages exacerbate while disrupting existing labour and land relations (Kamath and Dixit 2012). This paper investigates the complex governance and livelihood transformations following the upgradation of Bidhan Municipality to a Corporation in 2015 through the state driven merger of the existing planned satellite township of Salt Lake with the surrounding unplanned and severely underserviced village areas of Mahishbathan and urban areas of Rajarhat municipality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork between 2017 and 2018, the findings are drawn from in-depth interviews with the newly elected councillors and residents of the satellite township and the adjoining village areas, informal street vendors in the Rajarhat New Town, and officials of various planning and development agencies in the said area. Given the deep political and cultural differences and gaping existing inequalities along infrastructural, and socio-economic lines, the paper attempts to understand the potential frictions over access to urban services and resources emerging between the erstwhile rural and urban jurisdictions. The paper argues that a new politics of unsteady alliances characterises the messy, unsettled and restless territories of the newly configured Municipal Corporation that is highly contingent, informalised and comprises powerful configurations of dubious non-state actors – locally known as Syndicates, often with considerable overlaps with local political party networks. These Syndicates are shown to have significant decision making powers in the governance of the highly uneven fringe areas of the Corporation: (i) control over labour and material requirements of the periurban economy (ii) ability to mobilise large numbers of people and votes (iii) influence decision making with respect to the development of urban infrastructure networks in and through villages where real estate developers are flocking to. By examining the unfolding political dynamics in the area undergoing urban transformation, this paper attempts to contribute to the literature on hybrid forms of institutional governance that are prevalent in the peripheries of cities of the Global South.
Presenters Ratoola Kundu
Assistant Professor And Centre Chairperson, TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES MUMBAI
The role of food on re-imagining the sustainable city: from the neighbourhood to the region.View Abstract
Full Paper 09:30 AM - 11:30 AM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 07:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 09:30:00 UTC
Planning for a sustainable humanized environment requires equilibrium between several networks including the social, the economic but also the physical one. At a time when 55% of world population lives in urban areas and is expected to increase to 68% by 2050, it is important to disclose how cities can improve their current metabolism, towards a sustainable one. Humanity is now believed to live in a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, as a number of changes have been reported on the atmosphere, air, water, and soil, but also on societal perceptions of urban structure, including its limits, boundaries, concepts, and elements of urban form. This presentation departs precisely from this theoretical assumption and argues that the abovementioned changes in culture and the environment are occurring but have not yet found a stabilized platform to propose a new socio-ecological metabolic perspective. This presentation is part of an on-going research project (SPLACH – Spatial Planning for Change) which aims to identify urban planning policies to support sustainable transitions towards low-carbon cities. Improvement of urban metabolism requires an agenda for self-sufficiency with impacts for example on mobility, food provision, employment, and housing. From daily needs on which every citizen depends on to live, the problems and potentials associated with a sustainable urban food system present important challenges for spatial planning of metropolitan territories where rural hinterlands and urban consumption spaces have been long segregated. This presentation overviews the implications of the food system within urban planning while considering it as a socio-technical system which integrates production, distribution, transformation, consumption and disposal patterns. The production phase of the food system, in particular with agriculture at urban and rural areas, emerges as a fundamental planning challenge, extending to urban form solutions, individual behaviors, dietary regimes, inequalities in foodsheds planning, the current role of ICT innovation and the cultural capital of food, some of which have been seldom studied. Accordingly, the food system emerges here as an opportunity to identify how current urban fabrics of cities and their rural hinterlands can be transformed in terms of their metabolic function and respond to the needs of people and the environment. To do so, this presentation introduces the preliminary results of an analysis conducted by SPLACH project at two particular scales: the region and the neighborhood. Thus, we provide an analysis of its Regional Plan (PROT-AML) as well as some specific residential neighborhoods, in what regards the relationship between the food system functioning and urban planning options. The analysis includes a comparative number of case studies which differ in urban form solutions, socio-economic conditions, but also geographical location. The results of this analysis support our approach for the need of a stronger integration of the above-identified underexplored topics of the food system within urban planning, which will be fundamental to inform a new theory of the city that makes any serious contribution towards a sustainability transition.
Presenters
TM
Teresa Marat-Mendes
Professor, Instituto Universitário De Lisboa ISCTE-IUL
Joao Borges
Researcher, Instituto Universitário De Lisboa ISCTE-IUL
Sustainable development, planning and alleviation of povertyView Abstract
Full Paper 09:30 AM - 11:00 AM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 07:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 09:00:00 UTC
The global South is now characterized by a strong trend of urbanization. This process is primarily demographic and territorial. In parallel, it is a revolution in cultural references and regarding social and economic integration of a growing urban population. In 2018, the world population is around 7.6 billion, 4.2 billion in urban settlements and 3.4 billion in rural areas. Of this total, according to UN-Habitat, 3.2 billion of urban inhabitants live in southern countries. Of them, one billion, or nearly a third, live in slums. Urban poverty is therefore an endemic problem that has not been solved despite all initiatives taken to date by public and private sectors. This global transformation of our contemporary societies is particularly challenging in Asia and Africa, knowing that on these two continents, less than half of the population currently lives in urban areas. In addition, over the next decades, 90% of the urbanization process will take place in these major regions of the world. Urban planning is not an end in itself. It is a way, human and technological, to foresee the future and to act in a consistent and responsible way in order to guarantee the well-being of the populations residing in cities or in their peripheries. Many writers and urban actors in the South have criticized the inadequacy of urban planning to the problems faced by the cities confronting spatial and demographic growth. For many of them the reproduction of Western models of planning is ineffective when the urban context responds to very different logics. It is therefore a question of reinventing urban planning on different bases. And in order to address the real problems that urban inhabitants and authorities are facing, and offering infrastructures and access to services for all, this with the prospect of reducing poverty, to develop a more inclusive city, with a more efficient organization, in order to make it sustainable, both environmental than social and economic. The field work carried out during recent years in small and medium-sized cities in Burkina Faso, Brazil, Argentina and Vietnam allows us to focus the attention of specialists and decision makers on intermediate cities that have been little studied but which are home to half of the world's urban population. From local diagnoses, we come to a first conclusion. Many small and medium-sized cities in the South can be considered as poor cities, from four criteria. They have a relatively large percentage of the population is considered to be poor; the local government and its administration do not have enough money to invest in solving the problems they face; these same authorities lack the human resources to initiate and manage an efficient planning process; urban governance remains little open to democratic participation and poorly integrates social demand into its development plans. Based on this analysis, we consider it is imperative to renovate urban planning as part of a more participatory process that meets the expectations of citizens with more realistic criteria. This process incorporates different stages: an analysis grounded on the identification of urban investment needed to improve the city; the consideration of the social demands; a realistic assessment of the financial resources to be mobilized (municipal budget, taxes, public and international external grants, public private partnership); a continuous dialogue between urban actors to determine the urban priorities to be addressed in the coming years. This protocol serves as a basis for comparative studies between cities in the South and a training program initiated in Argentina for urban actors in small and medium-sized cities, which we wish to extend later to other countries of the South.
Presenters Jean-Claude Bolay
Director Of Cooperation + Professor Of Urban Development, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne)
Two Thousand New, Million-Person Cities by 2050 – We Can Do It!View Abstract
Full Paper 09:30 AM - 11:00 AM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 07:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 09:00:00 UTC
In 1950 three quarters of a billion people lived in large towns and cities, or 30% of the total world population of over 2.5 billion. By 2009 this had grown to 3.42 billion, just over half of a total population of over 6.8 billion. The United Nations Secretariat currently forecasts that in 2050 6.4 billion, 67% of a total of almost 9.6 billion people will live in urban areas. Just over a third of that growth, around one billion people, is expected to be in China, India and Nigeria, but the remaining two billion will be in the countries around those countries: a massive arc stretching across the world from North Africa through the Middle East, across Asia and into the Pacific. An additional two billion urban residents, in these other countries, over thirty years translates into a need to build a new city for a population of one million people, complete with hospitals, schools, workplaces, recreation and all the rest, at a rate of four a month. Almost 2000 cities, in countries with little urban planning capability! In addition, the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) include goal 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”, so these new cities should demonstrate a level of planning competence and city management ability that most towns and cities in the world are struggling to achieve. Notwithstanding the scale of the problem, the size and cost of the planning effort is demonstrated to be feasible, provided that action is swift and new technologies are developed and applied to the planning and approvals processes. Of course, taking these plans to construction is a much bigger effort, but the economy of cities is strongly circular, meaning that the initial cash injection generates jobs that pay wages that are spent on rent and goods within the city that generate profits that fund developments that generate jobs, etc. However, this requires good governance, a planning consideration that must also be addressed if the full benefits of planning, designing and building 2000 cities in the Third World are to be enjoyed by the citizens of those cities. Of course, failure is not an option, because “If we don't solve this equation, it is not that people will stop coming to cities. They will come anyhow, but they will live in slums, favelas and informal settlements” (Alejandro Arevena, November 2014), and we know that slums the world over produce crime, refugees and revolution, and then export these problems internationally, one way or another. The world most certainly does not want more refugees or another Syria, so planners must rescue us from that future, before it happens!
Presenters
SG
Stephen Goldie
City Planning Advisor, Abu Dhabi Department Of Urban Planning & Municipalities
Assistant Professor and Centre Chairperson
,
TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES MUMBAI
Professor
,
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa ISCTE-IUL
Researcher
,
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa ISCTE-IUL
director of cooperation + professor of urban development
,
EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne)
City Planning Advisor
,
Abu Dhabi Department of Urban Planning & Municipalities
No moderator for this session!
Mr Tjark Gall
Researcher
,
ISOCARP Institute
Dosen Senior ITB
,
Dosen Senior ITB
Extracurricular Professor and Head of Research Group: Change and Innovation
,
Leibniz Centre für Agricultural Landscape Research Müncheberg e.V. (ZALF), Germany
Mr David Green
Principal, Global Practice Leader, Planning and Urban Design
,
Perkins+Will
Kepala Sub Bidang Pengembangan Infrastruktur Kota Kecil dan Perdesaan II
,
BPIW, Pusat Pengembangan Kawasan Perkotaan
+36 more attendees. View All

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