TRACK 2: Besides the megacity and other cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor)
Sep 10, 2019 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190910T1400 20190910T1530 Europe/Amsterdam 2.3 Metropolitan City and Its Shadow Regions

Megacities and global metropolitan regions often tend to cloud our imagination through the sheer magnitude of their scale, their glitz and glamour, and their deprivation and squalor. Needless to say, megacities dominate and overshadow their hinterlands. Here, we seek to shed light on such shadow regions. We ask what it means to be a shadow region. Can life be good in the shadow of the megacities? How does megacity expansion transform the countryside? What are the conflict points and how are they being negotiated?

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org

Megacities and global metropolitan regions often tend to cloud our imagination through the sheer magnitude of their scale, their glitz and glamour, and their deprivation and squalor. Needless to say, megacities dominate and overshadow their hinterlands. Here, we seek to shed light on such shadow regions. We ask what it means to be a shadow region. Can life be good in the shadow of the megacities? How does megacity expansion transform the countryside? What are the conflict points and how are they being negotiated?

Response path adapted to the unbalanced shrinkage of small towns in metropolitan areas: A case study of Wuhan in ChinaView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
Along with the global wave of urbanization, urban agglomerations with megacities as the core have become the main form of urbanization in various countries. The polarization effect around the metropolis leads to the centripetal flow of capital, labor, land and other resource elements in the surrounding small towns, which causes the shrinkage of small towns in the metropolis, such as population reduction, economic recession, idle housing and dilapidated space. The shrinkage of small towns in the metropolis has become a global issue. However, as an important spatial unit in the spectrum of urbanization that serves, connects and couples urban and rural areas, the shrinking phenomenon faced by small towns has an important influence on the healthy development of urbanization. Exploring the development path of adaptive shrinkage for small towns has become an important part of the healthy urbanization of metropolises. Based on the public data of population, land, economy and facilities in Wuhan, China from 2000 to 2015, this paper uses GIS, ESDA and other spatial analysis technologies to comprehensively measure the relevant characteristics of the contraction of small towns. The results showed that the small towns in Wuhan are in the form of "unbalanced shrinkage" under a local growth, including a rural population backflow under a decrease town population, idle space with a land expansion, unbalanced economy structure with a growth economy, and service failure with increased facilities in small towns. And the towns present a "circle increasing pattern" of shrinkage around the boundary of central downtown. With a further exploration of the formation mechanism of "unbalanced shrinkage", it is found that this shrinkage pattern is caused by a combination function of various factors, such as downtown deprivation in the policies supply, centripetal delivery of social capital, convenient off-grade circulation of production factors, and equalization of rural facilities. Based on this, this paper tries to propose some response paths for small towns in metropolitan areas to adapt to the "unbalanced shrinkage". First of all, the small towns should integrate into the regional differential development pattern and strive for the system dividend. Secondly, the small towns should promote an industrial transformation, and then attract social capital to invest in their internal markets. Thirdly, the small towns should improve the level of service facilities, so as to improve the living environment. Through these paths, we can stabilize the three-level structure system of “urban-township-village”, and ensure the healthy urbanization of metropolitan areas.
Presenters
YL
YANQUN LI
PhD Candidate, Huazhong University Of Science And Technology School Of Architecture And Urban Planning
HG
Hong Geng
Head Of The Urban Planning Department, SAUP, Huazhong University Of Science And Technology
A Study on the Approach of Sustainable Development on Traditional Cultural Landscapes Surrounding Metropolitan ShanghaiView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
At present, the built-up areas in Metropolitan Shanghai has been effectively controlled, and the neglected local landscape in the past has attracted much attention. This study will focus on the methodology of effectively utilizing cultural landscape resources and promoting the further harmonious development of urban-rural relations in Shanghai. As a category of cultural heritage, cultural landscape is an indispensable resource for urban development. In Europe, America, Japan and other countries and regions where urbanization development is relatively perfect, the local cultural landscape has been regarded as the source of urban development in the process of urban and rural planning. As an international metropolis, for a long time, the understanding of cultural heritage lays particular emphasis on the historical relics in the built-up area of the city. The cultural landscape resources around the built-up area have been neglected, which results in the lack of echo with nature and rural areas in Shanghai's urban image. Therefore, this study will systematically sort out the cultural landscape within the scope of Shanghai, and put forward the mode of protection and sustainable development of cultural landscape resources, so as to provide the basis for the future decision-making of heritage protection, urban and rural planning and tourism planning in Shanghai. The basic ideas of this study are as follows: Firstly, starting from the general definition of "cultural landscape" and based on the human and land conditions in Shanghai, this study will define and classify the cultural landscape within the scope of Shanghai and explore its endogenous mechanism. Secondly, to find out the interface of interaction between human and nature within the scope of Shanghai, and regard this kind of interface as the core object of the protection and development of cultural landscape. Thirdly, to investigate and evaluate the landscape character and health status of the cultural landscape in Shanghai, summarize the existing protection mode, and explore the sustainable development mode and strategy in the future.
Presenters
dz
Dianhong Zhao
Senior Engineer, Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute CO.,LTD
Deciding Where to Live in The Suburb: Linking Utility-Maximization and Residential Mobility in Polycentric Urban Region ContextView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
The decentralization of employment to suburb has created numerous new attractive sub-centers, where residential and economic activities were mixed together. This process, termed as post-suburbanization, could be found globally with some variation between countries. The emergence of post-suburbanization and its polycentric spatial structure has been argued to have double spatial implications: changes population mixing and changes in commuting pattern. In a polycentric structure, the commuting pattern has become more complex with increase of inter-suburban flows. The existence of such pattern has not been well comprehended, whereas limited attempt to explained cross-commuting were still presumed that utility-maximization related factors as a major cause. Despite of strong indication of the monocentric model influences, to the best of our knowledge, no evidence has been provided regarding to the role of utility maximization in polycentric urban setting. The non-traditional commuting phenomenon was showing that employment suburbanization process, did not followed by workers residential adjustment. Thus, question arises whether utility-maximization factors was also involved in a residential adjustment problem within polycentric urban settings? This paper examines intra-urban mobility from a spatial fragmentation perspective. Focusing on the frontier areas of polycentric urban region, each municipality within the region is treated as a decision-making unit which intend to maximizing co-location between residential and employment uses. Hence, each municipality should provide a competitive environment to attract residential movement, rather than commuters. This paper is aimed to provide empirical evidence, validating the importance of utility-maximizing parameters, derived from the monocentric model, in the context of post-suburbanized polycentric urban region. The main question is to which extent the disparity of residential mobility between municipalities could be linked to the differences on such parameters. This study took the case study of Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA), a polycentric urban region in Indonesia. The study compares utility-maximizing parameters value between its suburban municipalities and their migration flows. Such value was obtained by analyzing the data from the National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), one of the most reliable cost of living survey in Indonesia. The analysis was simply taken by comparing the aggregative-mean of income, housing-cost and transportation cost data from each municipal in JMA. Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) was used for measure how these utility-maximizing parameters relate with in- and out- migration flows on suburban areas. This paper comes with two conclusions. First, monocentric model utility-maximization parameters, were still consistent to be used in polycentric setting, but limited for housing cost only. In polycentric structure, the trade-off between housing and transportation cost does not merely depend on location. Tenurial status was also playing an important role on residential location decision. Despite of having much lower income, household which decide to choose to rent were burdened with high housing cost, but relatively lower transport cost. On contrary, selecting permanent tenure would cost less for housing, but charge more on transportation. Secondly, suburban municipal with lowest utility value tends to be most efficient in attracting in-migrant. Surprisingly, they also produce some high score on pushing migrants out. Meanwhile, adjacent location with similar utility value does not display the same manner. Instead, developing post-suburbia, a significant major employment location creating a numerous out-migration flows to their inner-urban area. This phenomenon shows that residential mobility within suburban areas occurs not for a lower housing or transportation cost, nor to get near to major employment location. Further research on urban mobility within a polycentric setting should move beyond utility-maximization approach, and tried to identify the heterogeneity and behavioral aspect of mobile workers.
Presenters
ES
Erie Sadewo
Ph.D. Student, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Out-migrate Elites as Rural-Urban Link: an Innovative Pathway Toward Rural Development Around MetropolisView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
Urbanization has caused the outflow of rural population, leading to the depression in rural areas. Thus, unbalanced urban and rural development come to be a significant problem around metropolis in this era. On the other hand, however, diverse subjects in cities are involved in rural development in different ways because the rural villages are increasingly open. We found a special type of people involving in rural affairs in China's coastal areas, where cities are in high degree of aggregation with strong economy, and contributing to the rural development in some extent. We call them out-migrate elites (OMEs), the original villagers who immigrate to cities to make a living but still care about the development of the village and have the (potential) ability to provide certain resources to the village. This paper questions what is the role OMEs play in rural development. The question is translated into following specific objectives: to identify the characteristics of OMEs, based on their identity of grown up in rural villages and living and working in cities; to explain the causality of OMEs’ participation in rural issues; to recognize what specifically OMEs brought to rural development. To this end, we undertake the research with the participatory research method. Taking the practice of rural planning, the typical work towards rural development, as the opportunity to conduct in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and observations in the planning processes of initiation, design, decision-making, and implementation. Explicitly, three rural villages in the coastal areas of China, Leishan Village, Pucheng Village, and Tangxi Village, were studied as example. They belong to Ningbo and Fuzhou, two well developed large cities, at the administrative level. Though through different ways, some OMEs in those villages participated in the planning process in diverse forms. Besides to the basic information like geographical and cultural resources of the villages, we collected data through the observation in group meetings and semi-structure interviews and questionnaires with OMEs. The analysis concludes the “binary” nature that OMEs have. From the perspective of OMEs’ tie with villages, the kin relationship, geographical and economic relationship is found as the fundamental connections. To the standpoint of OMEs’ relation with cities, the experience of working and living in the city contribute to the significant human (knowledge) capital, physical and social capital of OMEs. The “binary” characteristics and the development of conurbations promote OMEs’ frequent travel between urban and rural, linking the separate territory. Most of the OMEs live in cities close to the village, normally in the same metropolitan area. The development of metropolitan area, especially the construction of infrastructure (highway and internet) network, makes it possible for OMEs to maintain close contact with the village (44% of OMEs keep contact with the village every week, and 36% of those contact monthly). Meanwhile, OMEs' appeal to the countryside, which is based on their relationship with the village, and the environmental thrust from the cities, prompts them to participate in village affairs. It is in this process that OMEs deliver resources between rural and urban areas, promoting the rural-urban interaction. Taking the rural planning process as the example, OMEs serve as the rural-urban link and provide a novel way for rural development by building endogenous capacity for the village. Through participating in public issues, OMEs bring the values and information from city into the village, diversifying ideas to the village development, and exchanging information with villagers to enhance their abilities. In the implementation stage, OMEs raise construction funds for the village. Furthermore, OMEs help expanding the social network of the village by introducing their personal social resources from cities into the village.
Presenters Tianzhu Liu
Building moratorium as a future instrument for tackling unsustainable urban growthView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
We live in times when our planet is overloaded with issues coming from human activities where additional mechanisms to preserve the quality of life are essential. Modern societies experience constant internal dynamics. The uncontrolled urban growth leading to dense and unmanageable environment as a main urban issue cities face today. This is a prevailing problem in the developing countries where the construction industry is booming. Overall while there is a rush to development there are also some conflicting interest and policies that are leading to unsustainable urban growth. To regulate a property development a local government can try to impose a moratorium on the issuance of building permits and this can be agreed upon all the interest parties or it may be imposed by operation of law (Lehman and Phelps, 2005). Oftentimes local authorities will impose a building moratorium to tackle development in order to have time to make a satisfactory urban plan or to make some changes and update the regulations. The land use control objective is to promote good planning values supported by the whole community. This is done by regulating the urban growth and it is best implemented on a carefully contemplated comprehensive plan. During a time a new plan is being drafted some construction demand may arise based on an existing outdated, inadequate urban plan. If this demands are met “the ultimate worth of the eventual plan could be undermined” and this where the moratorium comes in place. The resources of academic literature on the case are somewhat in short supply and mainly based on describing specific case scenarios without a critical thought on the tool itself. Based on the resources the paper will look at different cases using the growth management systems, mainly in the USA and one south east european case - the city of Skopje, Macedonia that adopted the building moratorium system in January 2018 where the author was involved in the decision making process. According to time spam a building moratorium can be short-term, lasting for several months and long-term that last for several years up to a decade depending on the frameworks set by the local government (Bankrate, 2018). The moratorium can also be general referring to all kind of building permits in one zone or it can be specific and pose a ban on a certain land use like a housing moratorium or a commercial moratorium. The most common type is the land use moratorium that halts the acceptance of new development applications until planning or zoning changes are being made. It's validity is being determined by weighing its impact on the affected parties. Not in all countries a moratorium is recognized in the constitutional law and in turns local authorities may face big challenges in facing the troublesome and hardly manageable development. In such cases however, there are ways to practice this mechanism as shown in some of the cases presented in this paper. As a conclusion a building moratorium is often times a political decision and it's downside is that political parties would use it merely for their own purposes. Furthermore a more comprehensive research in the economic repercussions of the mechanism is needed. Governments together with policymakers need to make plans for the long run and foresee growth patterns so that a significant cost on government revenue, jobs in construction sector and consumer surplus can be avoided.
Presenters Ivana Angelova
PhD Research Student , Meiji University, Tokyo
From one-way to interactivity:difficulties and strategies in the planning of adjacent areas of metropolisView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 02:15 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 12:15:00 UTC
The Yangtze River Delta metropolitan region is one of the six largest urban agglomerations in the world. Its regional integration development is a key point of the Chinese government’s regional coordination strategy. And also, establishing the Yangtze River Delta integration model zone has become a national strategy. There are a high degree of urbanization, huge population and large economy by nominal GDP in this area. The core area of the Yangtze River Delta is headed to the north and south with Shanghai as the leader. The two regions have been unbalanced for a long time. Among them, the urban agglomeration represented by southern Jiangsu in the north wing region is a traditional rich land in the south of the Yangtze River. The development level and scale are much higher than those in the south wing region, especially the Kunshan Huaqiao. Under the guidance of Rail Transit Line, The level of development is relatively high, and it is closely related to the central city of Shanghai, and it plays the function of the residence of the employed population in Shanghai. In contrast, in the south wing area, the development is relatively slow. From the perspective of the scale and level of urban construction, compared with Jiading and Huaqiao in the north wing, Songjiang, Jinshan and Zhejiang Jiashan in the south wing are currently less connected, and there is no rail transit and other great luck. The amount of commuter transportation is only traditional railway transportation, such as railways and highways.Achieving high-degree coordination between different cities, especially in cross-administrative regions, is the focus of planning and related academic research. Based on a practical project, this study focuses on the adjacent area of Shanghai. According to the history, culture, ecological space and urban development of Fengjing Town of Shanghai and Jiashan County of Zhejiang Province, the study,from a micro-perspective,analyzed the functional coordination, infrastructure connectivity,conservation of ecosystem and administrative barrier in the process of regional coordination and proposed the following planning strategies: first, preserving Fengjing Ancient Town cooperatively to promote the image of both cities,jointly protect ecological resources such as the water environment; then, building international schools, hospitals, high-quality residential areas and some other projects to enhance the area’s vitality , and attract working-age population from Shanghai; finally, replanning the regional traffic, connecting the impasses and improving the infrastructure and service of transit transfer ,such as the intercity railway transfer. Based on the project, this study summarized three major difficulties in a regional cross-border coordination planning: First, a cross-administrative planning involves multiple administrative subjects and usually causes huge costs due to poor communication; secondly, there are conflicts of interest between the two administrative subjects in adjacent areas, increasing the difficulty of planning implementation; thirdly, it is difficult to do a cross-border management and the technical standards are also different.How to solve these problems, the future needs to be further explored and coordinated by multi-participation including urban managers, planners and the public.
Presenters
LH
Liang He
Deputy Director Planner, Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute Co.Ltd.
Ph.D. Student
,
Institut Teknologi Bandung
head of the urban planning department
,
SAUP, Huazhong University Of Science And Technology
Senior engineer
,
Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute CO.,LTD
PhD research student
,
Meiji University, Tokyo
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No moderator for this session!
Team Leader
,
PT. Patita Galaxy
Director
,
PT. Patita Galaxy
Planner
,
PT. Viarchindo kso PT. Mitra Madani

Notes

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