TRACK 3: Liveable places and healthy cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B)
Sep 10, 2019 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190910T1400 20190910T1530 Europe/Amsterdam 3.3 Participatory planning and multi-generational well-being Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org
Association between Neighborhood Built Environment and Body Mass Index among Chinese Adults: Hierarchical Linear ModelView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
Obesity is becoming a global health problem. With the living standards of residents have improved rapidly in China, the problem of obesity becomes a serious threat to people’s health. Although obesity effected by many factors, the role of the built environment in relation to obesity among population should be taken into consideration. This paper examines the association of built environment and body mass index with the hierarchical linear model, based on the data from 2016 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS), which involves 29 provinces in China and investigates 401 villages or communities as well as 14226 families. In this paper, the village or community is used as the basic analysis unit, and the body mass index of the residents is used as the dependent variable, and neighborhood built environment (e.g. density of exercise facilities, square or park and distance to them) is as independent variables, socioeconomic status (e.g. age, gender, education, marital status, income and employment status) and health and exercise characteristics (e.g. self-rated health, average weekly exercise time and frequency) are as control variables. Participants are adults aged 15-65 years (n = 21086; 63.30% rural vs urban). With the independent variables from both individual and residential levels, hierarchical linear model is applied respectively to examine how body mass index is affected. Additionally, samples are classified by age group, urban/rural neighborhood and we figure out which factor mainly effected different groups. We explore that BMI is higher in high- vs. low-facility density neighborhoods but not significantly differ by neighborhood income. Overweight/obesity (BMI >= 25) is lower in high-developed districts. Physical fitness is higher in high-income neighborhoods but unrelates income. We conclude that living in walkable neighborhoods is associated with more physical activity and lower overweight/obesity but not with other benefits. Adults in higher-income neighborhoods have lower BMI and higher mental condition. These findings have important implications for urban planning and the corresponding improvement strategy is proposed.
Presenters
MZ
Mengqi Zhong
Tongji University, College Of Architecture And Urban Planning
Health and the city: creating built form and planning for the physically activeView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
One of the most common cases of deaths in developed countries are non communicable diseases – such as obesity, heart related problems and diabetes. Many of these are easily preventable and can be managed by each individual. Paradoxically the evolution of our civilisation, technology and growth of cities has lead to many diseases of affluence, which pose a great threat to the society.

Contemporary planning practices have introduced the concepts of walkability and connectivity to make pedestrian movement easier, reduce traffic and manage resources. They have discussed the shift from individual motorised transport to cycling in terms of sustainability and efficiency. But what is missing in this discussion is which features of the built form encourage people to exercise and be more active in cities, thus more healthy. Even in the simplest activities like walking, jogging or running can make a huge impact of the well being of citizens. But they also need an encouraging environment.

There is a growing awareness among citizens regarding healthy lifestyle. That includes not only proper nutrition and balanced diet, general health but also physical fitness. Instead of watching television, which quite recently seemed as a popular and attractive leisure activity, people prefer to spend time exercising, training and taking care of their bodies. It doesn’t matter if their goals are how they look, feel or fit they are. Each of those have one thing in common – better health and longer life expectancy.

This case study discusses the principles of good design for healthy cities. How cities can be more suitable for physical activities of its citizens? Which built form features are most appropriate for that? How to design the environment which would aid healthy lifestyle? Strategies for encouraging active lifestyle in cities are also discussed. It also presents the initiative of ActiCity (acticity.org) to promote good urban design and planning for aiding active and healthy lifestyle. The project currently focuses on running in cities.

Applicability of the study’s findings are universal, as they explain a set of guidelines and refer to case studies of best practices that can be implemented in other cities. It pitches the ideas for further development, research and implementation of the proposals. It discusses measuring the performance and use of space, such as the runnability index.

Presenters Slawomir Ledwon
Board Member, Congress Director, ISOCARP
The Importance of Stakeholder Participation in African UrbanizationView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
According to the World Bank (2015) Africa’s urbanization rate has surpassed other parts of the world and it is believed that by 2030, over 50% of Africans will reside in Urban Centres. Kenya is among the African counties that has experienced a tremendous increase in her urban population. This is most visible in the capital, the primate city of Nairobi. The growth has led to increased pressure on basic needs like housing, transport, water, education and security. Coupled with unequal economic development and social benefits, the result has been the tremendous expansion of informal sectors across areas. To respond to some of this pressure, the central government has vowed initiate large projects in housing , transport, water and others (Republic of Kenya, 2018). Newly enacted legislation also provides for the establishment of multi-sectoral urban boards to oversee the delivery of some services. Among the major projects coming up include Affordable Housing schemes and Mass Rapid Transport investments such as Bus Rapid Transit and expanded commuter rail systems. However, experience from the past both in Nairobi and other Cities has taught us the importance of inclusion, empathy and participation in such projects. Recent times have shown that public projects tend to ignore these and other key elements leading to massive failure of investment. The paper looks into case studies from similar projects in other parts of Africa, in particular Bus Rapid Transit Projects in Lagos, Dar es Salaam and South African Cities; past Slum Upgrading and Housing Projects in Nairobi and other parts of the continent. The research methods also involves data collection on inclusion and participation from those who are affected directly by these proposed projects as well as the impacts that previous projects have had. The paper also dwells slightly in the new upsurge of ‘suburb cities’ that are an attempt to develop away from the socio-spatial challenges that modern African Cities face. The results from the study show that without proper communication and participation there are several misunderstandings on livable spaces in cities. These include misinterpretations of the challenges citizens face, on the intentions of proposed solutions as well as the socio-economic decision making process of citizens. The implication of this leaves an unhealthy competition between existing informal ‘structures’ in various sectors against the new government driven proposals. The results are that those meant to benefit end up not being the primary beneficiaries. In conclusion, the role of putting people primarily as the centre objective of planning remains critical and key. For African planners, diverting from this will increase the existing inequalities and lead to further social divisions.
Presenters Constant Cap
Convenor, Naipolitans
Neighborhood Environment and the Elderly’s Subject Well-beingView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
Background: In the context of an aging society, the physical and mental health and quality of life of the elderly have received more and more attention. Among them, in the field of mental health of the elderly, subject well-being is an important concern. Many studies have shown that the environment has a certain impact on people's mental health. In the field of landscape, public health and architecture, most of the studies focus on the natural environment, including the number and proportion of green space, the distance to green space, the characteristics of green space, as well as the building density, building form, road network density and layout in the built environment. However, in China, the specific environment elements that are more comprehensive and more closely linked with urban planning and management need to be studied. Objectives: Relevant research shows that more than 80% of the activities of the elderly are completed within 1 km of the neighborhood. This study takes neighborhood environment as the main research area and research object. The objectives include: 1, to find the status of the elderly’s subject well-being in Shanghai; 2, to find the impact of the neighborhood environmental factors on the subject well-being of the elderly; and therefore, 3, to put forward some suggestions for neighborhood planning to promote the subject well-being of the elderly. Methods: Based on the data of the Fourth Survey on the Living Conditions of the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas of China, 3431 urban residential samples in Shanghai were selected and analyzed in this study. The subject well-being comes from the question, "General speaking, do you feel happy?" Options include five levels, ranging from very happy to very unhappy. According to the existing literature and the specific requirements of Shanghai urban planning compilation and management, the environmental factors are summarized as 20 indicators in four aspects: natural environment, housing conditions, urban form and facility environment. According to the sample address, the environmental factors indicators are calculated in GIS. The data are analyzed by the method of ordered logistic regression in SPSS 22. Results: 71% of the respondents felt very happy or happy, while only 2.2% of the respondents said they were unhappy or very unhappy. Non-agricultural household registration, low education, married couples, self-rated economic status of the elderly, higher happiness. Under the condition of controlling the basic characteristics and socio-economic attributes of the elderly, the community natural environment, housing conditions and facilities environment have a significant impact on the well-being of the elderly. The newer the housing, the larger the building area, the more commercial retail and sports leisure facilities, educational and scientific research facilities, the better of the subject well-being of the elderly; while the proportion of parks and green space, the number of cultural and entertainment facilities and medical facilities have a negative impact on the happiness of the elderly. Conclusion: Under the control of socio-economic variables, community environment can significantly affect the subjective well-being of the elderly. Housing conditions and the number of shopping facilities have a positive impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. In the planning of community life circle, attention should be paid to improving the housing conditions and other hardware facilities of the elderly, and increasing shopping, sports and leisure services to promote the well-being of the elderly.
Presenters XUHUI LIU
Tongji University, College Of Architecture And Urban Planning
Temporal and Regular Place-making in Indonesian Kampung: Creating Urban Spaces that Enhance Local Empowerment View Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 13:30:00 UTC
For almost a decade, there has been a grassroots movement in the country that adopts place-making in kampungs (Indonesian urban informal settlements) through cultural and contemporary art festivals. The common issues that have been faced by almost every kampung are to maintain their existence in the city where they tend to be excluded, marginalized, and demolished. Place-making has been held with the hopes of improving the aesthetic appeal of the kampungs, creating new opportunities for the residents to develop creative output relevant to their neighborhood and communities’ specialties, and strengthening the local identity to protect kampungs from the demolishment threat (Kustiawan et al. 2015; Lieshout 2014; Prasetyo and Iverson 2013). Although many pieces of research from a different part of the world have shown that "temporal" place-making through cultural and art festivals provides many social benefits to the individual and their communities, it seems to be unclear from the global South context. Consequently, uncertainties exist whether place-making brings positive impacts on social aspects of residents in the context of developing countries, particularly those who live in problematic areas such as urban informal settlement dwellers. It is indeed an area that has been little explored in the place-making literature (Lew 2017). Therefore, this study will contribute to understanding the implications of place-making towards the public life of informal settlers, particularly in Indonesia. The main purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of place-making on the local capacity in Indonesian kampung. The research was carried out using a concurrent mixed-methodology in two kampungs: Dago Pojok, Bandung and Bustaman, Semarang. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that place-making through regular "everyday life" and temporal "festivals" have significantly influenced local empowerment. While the qualitative findings further explained that place-making can promote local empowerment by encouraging youth's participation, increasing the organizational and mobilizational capacity of the local community, providing knowledge exchange, and broadening local community’s perspectives about their place and community. This study also demonstrated that different types of place-making bring a different kind of impact towards particular socio-economic groups. Therefore, to achieve a better quality of place-making, the enhancement of relational resources between different age and gender groups is necessary. Challenges on the viability of place-making in kampungs are noted as well, including the presence of local elite, a culture of indifference, and overdependence on particular actors. Finally, these findings raise important questions and suggestions for incorporating place-making into neighborhood planning efforts.
Presenters
PA
Poeti Akbar
PhD Candidate , Erasmus University Rotterdam
Tongji university, College of architecture and urban planning
PhD Candidate
,
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Tongji university, College of architecture and urban planning
Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute Co.Ltd.
Convenor
,
Naipolitans
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No moderator for this session!
 Neeanne  Balamiento
Congress Manager
,
ISOCARP

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