TRACK 6: Changing environment and risks Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Sumba B)
Sep 10, 2019 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190910T1600 20190910T1730 Europe/Amsterdam 6.4 The Currencies of Climate Change: Heat

One of the main consequences of climate change is global warming. In the future we will not only see higher overall temperatures but also more extreme heat. Without measures, this can very well lead to places, especially cities becoming uninhabitable. The session will look at planning tools and approaches that help mitigating the effects of heat, especially in those global regions that will be affected most.

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Sumba B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia

One of the main consequences of climate change is global warming. In the future we will not only see higher overall temperatures but also more extreme heat. Without measures, this can very well lead to places, especially cities becoming uninhabitable. The session will look at planning tools and approaches that help mitigating the effects of heat, especially in those global regions that will be affected most.

Full Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 14:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 15:30:00 UTC
World has seen an increased gathering of its population in urban areas, since 1990. As the urban population increases, the land area occupied by cities has increased at an even higher rate. A global sample of 120 cities observed between 1990 and the year 2000, shows that while the population grew at a rate of 17 per cent on average, the built-up area grew by 28 per cent. It has been projected that by 2030, the urban population of developing countries will double, while the area covered by cites would triple. Cities create an environment that is clearly distinct from their surrounding areas. Urban structures alter the surface energy budget, modify the vertical profile of various atmospheric properties, interact with both local and regional circulation, and introduce anthropogenic heat. As a result, the climate conditions in the urban environment significantly differ from their rural system. Sustainability in planning is a topic of high interest among urban planners, urbanist and policy makers yet lack of scientific knowledge in the field leads to low impact in evolving urban planning decisions. Urban climatic map (UCmap), as a tool provides a visual and spatial information platform using Geographic Information System (GIS). The major causes for increasing the local temperature of cities compared to the rural area has been attributed to densification, reduction in vegetation cover, open water surface and increase in anthropogenic heat in urban system. Thus, to mitigate the heat load in urban areas, the focus should be towards customizing urban vegetation for shading and evaporative cooling, introducing open water surfaces, planning of built structures that support ventilation by choosing an appropriate geometry and size of buildings and street areas, and applying suitable materials and colors for buildings to reduce the heat storage and the absorption of solar radiation. Increase in vegetation and water surfaces, known as green and blue infrastructure, is of particular interest due to their multiple functionality and benefits for the urban environment, such as increasing urban biodiversity and improving air quality in case of urban vegetation. Keeping the aforesaid knowledge in mind, the researcher has chosen Navi Mumbai City, India, as study area for further investigation. The Authors have made an attempt to establish the casual linkage green and blue infrastructure (GBI) on urban climate and shall map the effects of the presence of GBI in the system. The urban climatic, environmental and planning parameters, as well as their impact, are considered to synthesize and comprehensively evaluate the physical urban environment with regard to thermal load (TL) and dynamic potential (DP). The parameters considered to evaluate Thermal load include: Topography; Population Density; Land Use; Land Surface Temperature; Air Temperature and Dynamic potential are: Normalized difference Built up Index (NDBI); Normalized difference Vegetation Index; (NDVI); Normalized difference Water Index (NDWI) and Prevailing Wind of the study region. Arch GIS software to employ to develop 9 input layers, and an urban climatic analysis map shall be developed and various areas of similar climatopes shall be described with their particular characteristics of study region. Study concludes with planning decisions to develop urban climatology-based map for Green and Blue infrastructure to enhance cooling effects and thereby undertaking measures to regulate thermal comfort in the city through green and blue infrastructure.
Adinarayanane Ramamurthy
Associate Professor And Head, Department Of Planning,, School Of Planning And Architecture Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Anusha Roy
Master In Environmental Planning And Management,Department Of Planning, , School Of Planning And Architecture Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Green Roof: An Approach to Repair the Climate of Dhaka CityView Abstract
Full Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 14:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 15:30:00 UTC
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, looks no better than a piece of hardscape from aerial view which justifies the swelling concern of replacing green areas with built-up areas to fulfill the demand of briskly growing urban population. Increasing air temperature, changing rainfall pattern and ‘unhealthy’ air bears the proof of Dhaka city being an ‘Urban Heat Island’ (UHI) created by the ongoing development trend. Irreparable damage has already been done to the green spaces of this city which has turned this city as the ‘most polluted city’ in the world. At the edge of the collapse of sustainability of this city new approaches such as ‘green roofing’ can be used to repair its climate. Although roof gardening has been a traditional concept in Bangladesh, in city-wide scale a very few buildings can be seen with green space in roof or balconies. This concept is an emerging concept in worldwide and still has not made its mandatory place in national building code of Bangladesh. A handful number of architects have successfully implemented this approach in their few projects, but to the mass people, this approach is not yet popular due to lack of proper incentives, facilities, and encouragement from the government. This study employs satellite and GIS technology to identify the buildings with and without the green roof and present the hardscape to softscape ratio of the city. ‘A’ type questionnaire survey is conducted to the identified green roof user category to understand about their inspirations, benefits, and challenges of the green roof. ‘B’ type questionnaire survey figures out the factors hold people from developing green roof by surveying the identified non user category. This study involves the opinion from relevant Experts on strategic steps required to implement the green roof approach in the city scale. This study finds out the gap between the user and government on green roof perspective and recommends measures that can be done from both user and government side to make this approach successful. This study also gives an idea of how the city’s environment will be benefited from the green roof approach.
Ferdous Farhana Huq
Lecturer, Rajshahi University Of Engineering And Technology
Green Landscaping - an Interventionist Approach to Build Cool, Healthy and Liveable Future African City: The Case of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria View Abstract
Full Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 14:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 15:30:00 UTC
Urbanisation and population explosion are responsible for changes occurring in major urban centres of the world. Developing countries in Africa, such as Nigeria experience rapid trends whereby high rate of population increase derive from rural migration into cities, and lead to increased spatial requirement for various human activities, which exert pressure on limited land resources. In Ado-Ekiti, the capital of Ekiti State, space contestation and livelihood strategy make city development sprawl into the surrounding suburbs with the complete removal of vegetative cover, thereby exposing bare landscape. This trend of deforestation, coupled with greenhouse gas emission, tend to perpetuate the urban heat island syndrome and contribute to global warming. Consequently, landscape degradation ensues with concomitant effects on air quality, urban livability and comfort. This paper examines the extent to which space encroachment and contestation have affected verdure, carbon sinks, and biodiversity in the urban web. It also establishes the extent to which this developmental trend conforms to extant laws. Hence, the paper aims at using green landscaping as an intervention strategy to create vast inclusive green places and urban forest as natural ring in and around Ado Ekiti. This is intended to nurture rich biodiversity, sequestrate carbon, provide cool atmosphere for thermal comfort, and curtail global warming towards abating climate change. Data collected with questionnaires by multistage sampling technique, oral interviews and direct observation methods were supplemented with secondary data sources. Research findings pinpoint high occurrence of space contestation and encroachment, vegetal depletion, and excessive hard landscaping, culminating to inadequacy of greenery in the urban morphology. The non-conformity of development with statutory provisions on permissible plot ratio development and landscaping was established. The paper advocates the transformation of bare and hard surfaces to inclusive green areas by inventorying incidental land areas, patches, open spaces and setbacks that need be re-vegetated, as well as vulnerable rivers and rivulets, flood plains, hilly terrains and woodlands that should be conserved. These form components of urban forestry regeneration and preservation programs in the Urban Greenery Intervention Model developed for Ado-Ekiti, aimed at meaningful urban re-naturalisation to achieve cooler atmosphere and reestablish biodiversity in the cityscape. It was concluded that massive greening supported by people’s participation is guaranteed to curtail sprawling, ensure clean and healthy environment, improve urban comfort and livability, grow biodiversity, and create veritable carbon sink for sustainable landscape development in Ado-Ekiti. The paper argues that the replication of the Urban Greenery Intervention Model in the urban Global South provides innovative programs to mitigate the current global climate challenges, and attain liveable places and healthy cities for all.
Presenters Olufemi Ojo-Fajuru
Senior Lecturer / Research Fellow, Yaba College Of Technology, Yaba, Lagos Nigeria / Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Research on the Spatial Effect of Urban Construction on Heat Island Effect in Shanghai Based on Remote Sensing DataView Abstract
Full Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/10 14:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/10 15:30:00 UTC
Since the twentieth Century,global urbanization process is constantly accelerating,while the landscape pattern dominated by vegetation was gradually replaced by the landscape pattern dominated by artificial buildings.The change of climate and temperature caused by the expansion of urban construction land and the population aggregation,has aroused widespread concern.Under the background of national new type urbanization,improving the urban environment is the inevitable path to the new type urbanization. Urban heat island effect is the most prominent feature of human activities impact on temperature,and it has many effects on environment,economy,society,health and so on. Among the existing researches related to urban heat island effect,the influence of urbanization on it has not been paid enough attention.Therefore, the research on the effect of urban construction on the heat island effect is incompletable,and the method is limited to the quantitative analysis as the spatial analysis is insufficient. Based on the existing research,while under the background of urban planning major,taking Shanghai as a typical case,from macro scale to micro scale,this paper concentrates on the urban heat island effect under the influence of Shanghai urban construction and the construction of different residential areas. First of all,this paper takes the Landsat-7 ETM+ remote sensing image data of Shanghai in 01/08/2000,28/07/2010 and 28/07/2016 as the basic research data.ENVI software is used to retrieve land surface temperature on the thermal infrared band.Then this paper divides the heat island effect level,analyses the spatiotemporal distribution of land surface temperature in different years in Shanghai,and summarizes the evolution characteristics of urban heat island effect. Secondly, in the spaces of different scales, the influence factors of urban heat island effect have different characteristics.This paper uses the analytic method in two different scale spaces. In the scale of urban in Shanghai, factors like urban size,spatial structure and land use influence UHI. In the scale of residential district,control indicators and design factors influence UHI. Under the urban scale,city construction land expansion will aggravate the urban heat island effect.The increment of built construction in the city,the size of the resident population,as well as the population density have significant correlation with urban heat island effect,but the spatial distribution of population density and spatial distribution of heat island effect has no significant correlation.Shanghai urban spatial structure and the main body of urban heat island pattern present a high degree of spatial coherence,except some individual nodes.In various types of landuse,residential,industrial and mining,warehousing, commercial services,and transportation land can significantly aggravate the heat island effect, land types like green land, water area and farmland,etc can produce urban cold island effect in some individual area.At the same time,the location, area and shape of the green space and water area have an effect on the distance of reducing the heat island effect. On the scale of residential district , the FAR, green ratio and building coverage of the sample plot presents a significant correlation with the surface temperature.In the aspect of planning and design,the layout of the sample plot,the direction of the building,the surrounding landuses,the terrain factors have an impact on the surface temperature. Finally, this paper sums up the spatial impact of Shanghai urban construction on urban heat island effect under the scale of urban and residential district,and puts forward some targeted planning countermeasures to retard Shanghai urban heat island effect.
Presenters Shuo Zhang
Urban Planner, Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute Co.Ltd.
Master in Environmental Planning and Management,Department of Planning,
School of Planning and Architecture Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology
Senior Lecturer / Research Fellow
Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos Nigeria / Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Urban Planner
Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute Co.Ltd.
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