TRACK 3: Liveable places and healthy cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B)
Sep 12, 2019 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190912T1400 20190912T1530 Europe/Amsterdam 3.8 The Right to Housing and Livelihoods

Housing is more than four walls equipped with basic services of water, sanitation, drainage or electricity. Housing is a human right, strongly interlinked to livelihood, and a critical part in redressing the complex multi-dimensional challenges of poverty, inequalities, inequities and exclusion. The sub-track discusses and reflects upon lessons learnt from housing plans, schemes and projects in different parts of the world. It also explores varied perceptions to housing and livelihoods across various generations in diverse geographies and the feasibility of select tools and techniques that can tackle housing issues.

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org

Housing is more than four walls equipped with basic services of water, sanitation, drainage or electricity. Housing is a human right, strongly interlinked to livelihood, and a critical part in redressing the complex multi-dimensional challenges of poverty, inequalities, inequities and exclusion. The sub-track discusses and reflects upon lessons learnt from housing plans, schemes and projects in different parts of the world. It also explores varied perceptions to housing and livelihoods across various generations in diverse geographies and the feasibility of select tools and techniques that can tackle housing issues.

Hunger in revered spaces: Exploring the impact of planning on the university campus food system in South AfricaView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
This exploratory study examines how campus planning and its spaces affect the food security of students. The study is conducted on the campus of the University of the Free State in South Africa and uses a mixed methods approach which includes an online survey, qualitative interviews and a site inspections. The data is used to determine the state of the campus food system as well as gauge respondents opinions on the subject of food access, availability and management. Traditionally a university campus is considered an axiom of sophistication and enlightenment. These principles also translate to the physical layout and appearance of the campus and services. For many societies universities have become a symbols of reverence and privilege and as such they are absolved from certain criticisms that might be found elsewhere in the built environment. A disconnect can occur between the needs of students and the campus offerings. Although the traditional blueprint has been extremely successful it should be adapted to adres the changing needs of new generation students in the South Africa. The University of the Free State (UFS) is such an example of changing needs and is located in one of the poorer regions of South Africa. As a result, the institution registers many students who come from vulnerable and marginalised communities. Poverty and food insecurity are directly linked and as a result, many students experience degrees of hunger while attempting to complete their studies. It is also assumed that this problem is not unique to the UFS and more widespread throughout the country. The problem is set to grow due to the increase in the cost of living which includes transport, accommodation, tuition fees and food. The circumstances first generation students find themselves is complex. For many a degree is seen as a means for the entire families to uplift themselves. This puts tremendous pressure and stress on students who are often just able to pay registration fees. The true cost of living is not always taken into consideration and students are forced to survive on a meagre daily budget. Many are unsure how they will find funds to continue from the one semester to the next one. Hunger becomes a reality and many experience it to certain degrees. Also, cheap, fast and unhealthy food at the student canteen is the only choice due to time, convenience and financial constraints. It should be realised that campus planning can help solve this problem. Planning should take into consideration all possible options for strengthening and accessing the local food system and introduce spatial alternatives and services not conventional to a campuses. Food planning as a sub-category of urban planning is especially relevant for citizens of the Global South and universities, as micro communities, can provide valuable lessons for planners as these institutions often function as incubators for new ideas.
Presenters Rouve Bingle
PhD Candidate, SACPLAN
Secondary cities and forced migration: accommodating refugees and asylum seeker in IndonesiaView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
Forced migration trend around the world is increasing. UNHCR estimated that more than 65 million people are forcibly displaced in 2015, representing about 26% of all international migrants. In relation to forced migration, secondary cities are also impacted, with many of such cities attract forcibly displaced migrants who view them as more accessible and 'friendly' compared to primary cities. Furthermore, many secondary cities in poor, climate- and conflict-affected regions and countries support the needs of migrants and refugees as a first point of entry, shelter, asylum and informal employment (Roberts, 2014). In Indonesia, UNHCR recorded almost 14,000 person-of-concerns (refugees and asylum seekers) in 2015. They are present in about 13 cities, with at least 4 cities are identified as secondary cities: Medan, Makassar, Surabaya, Pekanbaru. Although small, the number of forced migrants in Indonesia is expected to increase slowly along with the increasing trend of forced migration around the world. The study explores the capacity of secondary cities in Indonesia in accommodating the influx of refugees and asylum seeker, with Makassar as a case study. Using a simplified City Resilience Framework developed by Arup International Development (2015) as a framework, the study is looking at how Makassar strives for city resiliency while providing 1) adequate shelter, health care and protection; 2) basic service provision; 3) economic development and employment; and 4) social and political inclusion and community cohesion for its resident refugees and asylum seeker. The study focuses on the analysis of the first two elements: shelter, health, protection and basic services provision. By understanding the system and how it affects displaced people, it is expected that the focus for future improvement that contributes to the city resilience can be identified.
Presenters
AT
Akino Tahir
Resilience Development Initiative
RD
Risye Dwiyani
Assessing the spatio-temporal change of air quality and finding their correlation with urban activitiesView Abstract
Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
The city of Varanasi is one of the world’s oldest surviving conurbations being a center of culture and civilization for almost 3000 years. It is a very dense city accommodating more than 2300 inhabitants per square kilometer. Also, it is a major tourist destination attracting more than 6.3 million domestic tourists and one million foreign tourists per year. Unfortunately, it is also one of the fifteen most polluted cities in the world. The average PM2.5 concentrations in 2015 was more than 78.4 ± 10.3 _g/m3, which is twice the national standard and more than 7 times the WHO guideline. This study uses satellite data to acquire a continuous map of the different levels of air pollution throughout the city. The MODIS aqua and terra data are used to obtain the aerosol optical depth(AOD) to assessing the air quality. The result is compared with the in-situ observations for validation of the prediction capability. Also, in order to identify the major contributors of air pollution, the result was correlated with factors like vehicular traffic, industries, vegetation index, population density, etc. Moreover, a spatiotemporal trend of change in pollution levels with the changing land use composition over time is also analyzed. The monthly average AOD concentration over the place for past 3 years were observed to analyze the trend. The various urban activities have been analyzed to assess the major factors contributing to increased levels of PM10, NO2 and SO2 thus giving an insight about ameliorating air quality in Varanasi.
Presenters
SR
Swechcha Roy
Student, Indian Institute Of Technology Kharagpur
Discussion on the Fairness in the Planning of Relocation Community——Taking the Constructive Detailed Planning of Longhai Community as an ExampleView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
China's urbanization is still growing rapidly. About 20 million farmers are transforming into citizens every year. The housing problem has become one of the important issues that China's urbanization needs to solve. Every year, a large number of farmers in China need to be relocated into new communities due to geological disasters, land acquisition, and relocation of villages and other reasons. How to achieve fairness is especially worth exploring. The fairness is not only the fairness of space, environment and landscape, many factors such as opportunity, culture and employment, as well as many problems facing the implementation of planning also needs to be considered. Due to the coal mining caused by coal mining, 1832 villagers in 3 villages need to be relocated into new communities, in Juye County, Shandong Province. The company is responsible for the funding of new community construction, and the government is responsible for the formulation and implementation of relevant policies for demolition and resettlement, the planner is responsible for the planning of the new community. Due to the customs and historical uniqueness of rural China, the fairness of villagers in three villages is the most important issue in the planning and design of the new community. The author conducted a large number of on-the-spot investigations, distributed hundreds of questionnaires, interviewed hundreds of villagers, and communicated with the government, enterprises and village leaders, and obtained a large amount of first-hand information and data, which was integrated in community planning and design. Considering the specific requirements of each household of 1832 households in three villages on the type of housing, environment, and living habits, the methods of different groups of the elderly, children, young people, and the disabled living together, the public space and private space of the three villages, history and culture continuing, livelihood problems of villagers who lost their land, and the balance of interests of the government, enterprises, and villagers, and so on, the author put the UN-HABITAT's concept of open communities, functional mixed layout, courtyard layout, and appropriate ecological technologies in community planning into practice to some extent, using Auto CAD, Sketch up, Arc GIS, Ecotect, Cadna/A, Revit, Yet Another AHP (yaahp) and other related software, finally, the fairness was realized to the greatest extent in the constructive detailed planning of Longhai District. Through the case analysis of many relocation cases in China and the empirical research on the detailed planning of Longhai community, several strategies to improve the fairness in community planning under the background of relocation are proposed, in terms of space and environment, function and layout, cultural heritage, habitability tools and planning methods, and ecological technologies. Finally, the limitations of this study and the direction of future research are pointed out.
Presenters Fujun XIA
Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute
A Dream of open defecation free India? Decolonise and innovate urban sanitation to reach those left behindView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
Home to 15 per cent of world’s urban population, India accounts for 48 per cent of the global population defecating in open (UNICEF, WHO, 2014). As an end result of sanitation deprivation, open defecation has implications on economy, tourism, public health, environment, education and safety. An action in this direction is therefore, imperative for urban India. Content analysis of sanitation policies in post- Independence India indicates that open defecation and urban sanitation in the country has been associated with several policies, agendas and efforts- running separately for rural and urban centres. The human right of adequate sanitation- associated with Universal Service Obligation is still a luxury which millions can’t afford, and anyone concerned with its upkeep or cleanliness, is linked with the notion of ‘dirty’. The latter idea emerges from the Laws of Manu, famously known as the ‘Manav Dharma Shastra’ of 500 B.C., which identifies toilets and the caste cohort ‘responsible’ for cleaning them as untouchables and thus calls for spatial and social segregation from place of habitation. On the other end, India boasts of having one of the earliest sanitation systems intertwined with town planning- as excavated from the Indus valley civilization in 2600 BC. This becomes intriguing in light of the sanitary history, ideologies and principles of British India- which Independent India and its citizens knowingly or unknowingly continue to propagate in their efforts to eradicate open defecation. Critique of policy frameworks, missions and schemes aimed at addressing sanitation deprivation, also highlight that a large number of contemporary sectoral policies have a restrictive view of sanitation, especially with regards to ‘open defecation’- the latter finds no mention in any policy framework, until the launch of Clean India Mission (or ‘Swachh Bharat Mission) in October 2014. It is also evident that certain colonial practices and policies of social and spatial segregation that have persisted in Independent India, are critical in perpetuating sanitation deprivation. Gaps in urban sanitation chain and a ‘crisis management’ approach to deal with sanitation deprivation further aggravates the problem. The National Capital Territory of Delhi is identified for the project. Various sanitation policies applicable to the city have been analysed within the pre-defined evaluation criteria. Following this, statistical data relating to the extent of sanitation deprivation in Delhi, was collected from the Office of the Registrar General of India, the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board as well as local bodies; thereafter subjected to empirical analysis. It is inferred that- first, out of 36.26 lakh (~3.626 million) households in Delhi, nearly 1 lakh (~ 0.1 million) defecate in the open (ORGI, 2011). Second, in this cohort of open defecating households, nearly 48 per cent are slums. Third, gaining access to latrine facility does not necessarily put a stop to open defecation. Fourth, it does not guarantee that waste generated is collected or collected waste is treated. Fifth, the city functions at less than 50 per cent of treatment capacity, where its treated waste as well as untreated waste ends up mixing at site of disposal, or the city’s surface and groundwater resources. Comparative analysis of availability of latrine facilities within Delhi in 2001 (ORGI, 2001) and 2011 (ORGI, 2001) and 2018 data on Clean India Mission, indicates a significant improvement in the extent of availability of sanitation facilities outside premises. However, correlating these numbers with the archives of urban local bodies attributes the change to the collaboration of Municipal Corporation of Delhi and Sulabh International during 2003-to-2006, wherein numerous Community Toilet complexes were constructed and later used for advertisement panels, and post 2014- through the Clean India Mission drive. Thus, available statistical, census data are at-best an indicative of availability of latrine facility, remaining silent on indicators of accessibility, adequacy and actual instances of open defecation. Scaling down city diagnostics to ground-zero, which includes informal settlements and public spaces, where open defecation persists despite access to latrine facility. Following comprehensive review of institutional mandates and mission statements, data is collected from government and non-government institutions. Majority of the data collected comes from the headquarters and zonal offices of the Delhi Jal Board, the three civic bodies of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board, Delhi Development Authority and the Office of the Registrar General of India, Government of India. Multiple interviews were conducted with identified key stakeholders working in these government institutions, NGOs, select slum clusters- where emphasis was given to include women, children and the elderly in the sample surveyed. Contrary to a belief which presumes a direct relationship between open defecation and slum population, analysis of data indicates a prominence of open defecation in peripheral districts of Delhi, which have comparatively less slum population than the inner districts. Furthermore, it was discovered that in these peripheral districts, even though water supply has been provided to almost all settlements through piped network or borewell, sewerage network is far from reach. A thumb rule of 80 per cent of water supply becoming wastewater (Government of India, 1996) when applied to these peripheral districts, further reinforces a need to adopt measures of decentralised wastewater management. In slums where latrine facilities are provided in form of community toilets or mobile toilets, inhabitants are either non-users, or users by day and open defecators by night. In the end, to eradicate open defecation from a society whose foundation is still influenced by Manu Smriti, and decades of social, physical segregation and accompanied psychological differentiation brought upon with the Sanitary Revolution in mid-19th century, sanitary foundations need to be dug deep and a radical change in the current approach is required- ensuring no one is left behind, through more equitable and environmentally sustainable interventions and innovations.
Presenters Mahak Agrawal
Urban Planner, ISOCARP
PhD candidate
,
SACPLAN
Resilience Development Initiative
Tongji university, College of architecture and urban planning
Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute
Urban Planner
,
ISOCARP
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