TRACK 2: Besides the megacity and other cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor)
Sep 12, 2019 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190912T1400 20190912T1530 Europe/Amsterdam 2.8 The future of urbanisation: decentralization of functions, dispersal of urban form?

Discussions under the theme would revolve around various alternative possibilities regarding mega-urban regions – What are national level planning strategies regarding spatial concentration or dispersal? Is it still necessary for capital and other core administrative and economic functions to be co-located in a single urban centres? Or is it possible to envision that constellation or a network of different small towns connected by smart technologies will surpass megacities of today? And why do countries still need centralized cities as it was thousand years ago despite the all-around digital maze of our times?

Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Timor) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia

Discussions under the theme would revolve around various alternative possibilities regarding mega-urban regions – What are national level planning strategies regarding spatial concentration or dispersal? Is it still necessary for capital and other core administrative and economic functions to be co-located in a single urban centres? Or is it possible to envision that constellation or a network of different small towns connected by smart technologies will surpass megacities of today? And why do countries still need centralized cities as it was thousand years ago despite the all-around digital maze of our times?

A 21st Century National OrdinanceView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
The national master plan for the country of Kuwait, the Fourth Kuwait Master Plan 2040, utilizes a National Ordinance that serves as the planning and development platform for the country. The ordinance is based on the Land Ordinance of 1785, Jefferson’s plan for most of the United States, however, it is restructured to address changes in context, technology and operation. In this case the Ordinance provides parallel Geographic Information Systems for both spatial implementation and data analytics. The intention is to use the Ordinance to address the difficulty in planning for the future of a complex system such as an entire country. In any large-scale planning effort, there are two parallel tracks that determine the future outcomes of development; spatial and analytical. The theory underpinning this project, in the first instance, is based on ideas outlined in the Hoover Commission’s Planning Enabling Act of 1928, and in the second instance it is predicated on current computational analytics for economic, transportation, connectivity and utilization of resources and utilities. This is set against a government stakeholder group spanning over 120 agencies that are generally non-communicative and non-collaborative. From a spatial perspective, the entire country has been organized around a GIS-based spatial grid set on a 6-kilometer square pattern. This specific dimensional pattern allows for subdivision to 1.2 x 1.2, .6 x .6, .3 x .3 and .15 x .15 kilometer cells that provide a spatial construct down to the scale of the individual block. The 150 x 150 meter cell size correlates directly to city blocks planned using the cell lines as centerlines of projected streets. The resulting block size has a perimeter that is generally in the range of +/- 480 meters, or 120 meters on each side. In parallel with the spatial projection of future development, the ordinance also organizes data across the country at various scales, allowing for the aggregation and disaggregation of data depending on the scale and type of data and analysis required. In this way, baseline information, data, and indicators can be identified and quantified to provide detailed understanding of existing conditions. For instance, population and employment distribution can be analyzed at the national level, while also providing a detailed, granular analysis of data down to the block level. This allows for tracking data such as distribution of residential and non-residential development, for example. Stemming from the baseline information, the Ordinance and the supporting analytical platforms are employed to provide projections across the country for growth across all sectors, from energy and water distribution to alignment of transit infrastructure and population densities and balance among others. The parallel spatial and analytical platforms provide a system for accurately and flexibly planning for future expansion of the country. In addition, it provides a methodology for updating projected outcomes through the tracking mechanisms, which further provides for an updatable master plan that is responsive to future conditions. Further, the planning process itself is structured around major development triggers instead of a simplistic time-based program. This allows for coordination and impact assessment across all sectors. This paper and presentation will take the audience through the theory behind the implementation of the National Ordinance and provide a series of case-studies across scales that describe the operational aspects of the Ordinance for both spatial structuring for new and existing development as well as projecting and tracking sectoral development across the country and across scales. It will also discuss the universality of this system and its application in other areas, including the United Kingdom and New York.
Presenters David Green
Principal, Global Practice Leader, Planning And Urban Design, Perkins+Will
The Smaller Town as Component of an Urban Settlement ClusterView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
In Ireland rejuvenated town clusters gather together interactive settlements in a rapidly emerging metropolitan alternative to either the city or the rural lifestyle. A similar trend is observable in many countries where quality of life in a settlement of smaller scale can exceed that in the city. The concept of nucleated settlement has made planning sense for centuries, but where unique individual settlements can be related and co-ordinated with efficient connection, by recent advancements in rapid sustainable transportation, there may now be a clear role for the smaller settlement and its defined hinterland. Traditional settlements carry the advantage of place-rich heritage, identity, proximity to the natural environment and human scale. Modern transportation systems now give them connection to the essential shared services of other places. While the traditional town which serves this cluster concept brings the stability of established place, evidence now shows however that it must adjust to develop a different operational structure in the service of its role within a broader settlement framework. This paper draws on a five-year study of sixty-six urban settlements in Ireland illustrating how the structure, layout and operation of the traditional settlement is adjusting to become a modern part of a semi-dispersed settlement network. Each town is taking a place in this route-linked strategy, each having a function and identity in a composite framework which is now bonded across distance by an emerging hierarchy of efficient connections. Reworking of the fabric of towns towards a new role has introduced a range of new relationships between modern operational structures and traditional urban frameworks. Findings have revealed such details as the inverting relationship between street and block, as towns collectively adjust to new scales of use, particularly in a changing global retail interface. The research has taken a morphological approach using such techniques as cartographic regression (Kropf 2017) and review of development activity, relating towns to each other by comparing their timelines of change (Field and Morse 1985). The work has also embraced significant engagement with municipal authorities.
Urban Population Growth and the Growth of Towns and Cities in Indonesia: the challenge of non-statutory town development View Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
Urbanization has offered opportunities for economic development, welfare and quality of life for cities and regions, since the process play roles as transformative processes that bring about higher productivity to cities and strengthen the spatial structure of cities and regions in both internal and external context (UN-Habitat, 2016). Indonesia is a member of a group of countries that have more than a hundred millions of urban population since the early year of the 21st century, with China, India and Japan in Asia(see UN, 2015). These facts show the great challenges in the future of urbanization processes in Indonesia. This article aims at examining urban population growth in Indonesia and its implication to Indonesian urbanization challenges. The analysis emphasizes on the urban population growth and its implications to the growth of towns and cities in Indonesia. The study applies statistical descriptive analysis, with statistical data withdrawn from national censuses. This study reveals the emergence of current characters of Indonesian urbanization process. The process is characterized by not only the development of large cities and mega-urban but also rapid development of many smaller cities and urban concentration. The latter includes the non-statutory towns in the territory of kabupaten. The rapid growth of towns and population, in addition to the huge number of accumulated urban population in kabupaten suggest that this type of urban concentration will play a more significant role in the future of urbanization and urban development in Indonesia. The development of these small towns and cities will also bring significant implications and challenges for central as well as local governments, including the government of the urbanized kabupaten, especially in improving the capacity to manage such emerging characteristics of development. Located in the place where global urbanization grows rapidly, the Indonesian urban population growth and urbanization process become one of the significant processes that should be better understood and managed in order to take benefit from the inevitable process. The approach developed in this study provides insights into the importance of Indonesian urbanization process that has potential to be experienced by other developing countries in the south: the significant number of urban population involved, the spatial concentration of urban growth that remains to be concentrated in the main region, and the small towns and cities, including those the non-statutory, that should be given more serious attention in order to bring better management in their urban development process.
Paramita Rahayu
Senior Lecturer, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS)
The CRISALIDE Project: When innovative planning processes re-balance urban development and create new quality of life using the opportunities provided by the rise of the digital city. View Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:30:00 UTC
CRISALIDE (City Replicable And Integrated Smart Actions Leading Innovation To Develop Urban Economies) is one of the very few project financed between EU and Russian Federation through the ERA NET RUS PLUS (ENRP) programme. It is the only financed project in ENRP dealing with topics related to urban planning in this current EU programming period (2013-2020). Societal transformation happens in the cities. Cities are the natural habitat for developing innovation. Innovation inherently requires change. Great cities, especially in their golden ages, have been considered as “innovative milieus” or “cradles of civilization” (Hall, P., 1998). The change, as the catalyser of innovation, is embedded in urban life. The change covers different fields, for instance, the demography (e.g. ageing, in-im-emigrations), the citizens’ behaviors (e.g. higher mobility, digital literacy, social media addiction), the working patterns (e.g. continuous learning, higher commuting, virtual offic,), the use and extension of both public space and sphere (e.g. location-based services, public/private urban spaces as hyper-location, re-use and temporary uses of buildings and brownfields) the modes/means of production (e.g. just in time products, global trade and distribution, effective governance schemes adoption and tools for Public-Private-People Partnerships - PPPP ) and so on. Nonetheless, we are in an age of rapid urbanization. In Russia, a polarization of population around major urban areas is evident. This trend led, a few years ago, to the design of a policy facing planning issues related to Russian Urban Agglomerations. Urbanization is a great opportunity for supporting innovative choices and urban solutions. Strategic, smart and integrated urban management is a key tool to promote stable growth and effective processes of innovation. New efforts to modernize the Russian economy, and face global issues as well (e.g. climate change, migration, sustainability), have taken on an even greater significance since the implementation of Western sanctions. Cities can be the natural catalyser for promoting innovation, as they contain all strategic elements (e.g. available spaces and infrastructures-both public and private, research centres, universities, science parks, creative communities, large industry, SMEs), at a scale of proximity. CRISALIDE is experimenting in Rostov on Don, through a collaborative approach involving EU an Russian researchers, the creation of a digital innovative platform aimed at facilitating the renewal and regeneration of brownfields. The platform is abstracting, digitalising and finally creating a replicable and user-friendly tool based on an enlarged participatory planning process grounded on PPPP (Public Private People Partnership) principle. The platform is harmonising the contribution of stakeholders in diverse planning domains and formalize them through KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) providing values at disposal to decision makers linked to grade of smartness and comprehensive quality of life generated by the triggered regenerative planning process.
Director & Founder, URBASOFIA
Elena Batunova
Researcher, Politecnico Di Milano
Miruna Draghia
Researcher, University Ion Mincu, Bucharest
From Balanced development to Integrated Development, the case of the National Spatial Strategy of the Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:55 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/12 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/12 13:55:00 UTC
Achieving balanced development between cities and regions has been a guiding principle for state planning agencies. This concern has always guided national spatial policies and served as basis for many spatial plans in both developed and developing countries. Balanced development main assumption is that growth of large metropolitan areas must be controlled for the benefit of small and intermediate cities and that rural population migration towards cities must be stopped. This imperative requires allocating resources and services evenly throughout the territory and reducing state (and private) investments in large cities and promoting investment in smaller cities and lagging regions. However, experience shows that this principle has often led to many shortfalls. On one hand, national funds were spread too thinly country wide and failed to achieve the anticipated outcome in medium and small cities and lagging regions. On the other hand, metropolitan areas were penalized and prevented from playing their natural role as leaders of the national economy. This situation was even more aggravated with globalization which led cities and regions of one country to compete even more to attract resources and funding while central governments disengaged further from their responsibility to redistribute growth to lagging regions and cities. Through the case of the National Spatial Strategy 2030 of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia this paper argues for the need to move from the imperative of balanced development to the concept of integrated spatial development. The paper strongly recommends that there should be no trade-off between strengthening metropolitan areas on one hand and developing medium and small sized cities on the other since both processes can take place at the same time in an integrated manner. We argue that, in a globalized world, metropolitan areas are more than ever needed for economic diversification and should be empowered to rely more on their global positioning and capacity to attract FDIs, multinational businesses and creative and skilled labour. While state intervention in the form of more local devolution and through a smart allocation (both rational and technologically driven) of resources and services is still needed to achieve the integrated development of small and intermediate cities in the national urban system and, beyond, in the regional and world economy.
Muhammad Mustafa
Director - Partner, IBI Group
Walid Bakhos
Associate - Planning, Manager, IBI Group
Advier B.V.
Director of Technical Assistance
Principal, Global Practice Leader, Planning and Urban Design
director - urban planner
SVP architectuur en stedenbouw
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