TRACK 3: Liveable places and healthy cities Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B)
Sep 11, 2019 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20190911T1400 20190911T1530 Europe/Amsterdam 3.6 Data, indicators and new paradigms for public health Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia congress@isocarp.org
Developing a Spatial Transformation Scoring Tool to Monitor South African Catalytic Housing ProjectsView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
Spatial transformation is an important concept in the South African housing sector and has a specific meaning in the South African context (HDA, 2017a). Spatial transformation in South Africa is not only about restructuring or change but additionally deals with redressing the spatial legacies of apartheid (ibid). The Spatial Transformation Scoring Tool (STST), developed by the Monitoring and Evaluation, Knowledge Management and Research Planning unit in the Housing Development Agency is currently being used to assess housing projects classified as catalytic projects. Catalytic projects are intended to be high impact, sustainable and integrated mega human settlement projects (HDA, 2017b). The STST was initially developed through a study the HDA published in 2017 analysing one of government’s housing programmes, the integrated residential development programme (IRDP), in four case studies (HDA, 2017a). The STST has since evolved to encompass approximately 160 indicators within ten pillars. The spatial transformation indicators aim to monitor change in the urban environment via the ten pillars of land value-add, integration, socio-economic development, functional and equitable residential property markets, public safety, return on investment, urban management, quality, a human settlements transformation scorecard and transversal alignment (HDA, 2017a). It is a tool that is constantly evolving and adapting with the unit’s interaction with project managers, town planners and other professionals in the sector. The monitoring of catalytic projects with the STST have highlighted several challenges as well as opportunities both for catalytic housing projects and the STST. The STST is proving to be an effective planning tool. This paper intends to explore the challenges, opportunities and lessons learnt of the STST in monitoring housing projects in South Africa. References: HDA. (2017a). Assessment of the Integrated Residential Development Programme (IRDP) and its Impact on Spatial Transformation. HDA: Johannesburg. HDA. (2017b). Marketing Plan for Catalytic Projects. Presentation. HDA. About The HDA: “The Housing Development Agency (HDA) is a national public sector development agency that acquires and prepares land as well as develop the land and project manage the development of housing and human settlements. We carry out our activities in partnership with a range of stakeholders including national, provincial and local government and municipalities, as well as with communities, developers, financiers and other affected parties. Established in 2009, the Agency is established by an Act of Parliament in 2008 and is accountable through its board to the Minister of Human Settlements.” Source: HDA. (2017c). Who We Are. Available at: www.hda.zo.za
Presenters Raeesa Ghoor
Research And Planning Specialist , Housing Development Agency
Strategies on Healthy Urban Planning & Construction for Challenges of Rapid Urbanization in China View Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
In the past 40 years, China has experienced the largest and fastest urbanization development in the world. The infrastructure, urban environment and medical services of cities have been improved significantly. The health impacts are manifested in the decrease of the incidence of infectious diseases and the significant increase of the life span of residents. However, the development of urbanization in China has also created many problems, including the increasing pollution of urban environment such as air, water and soil, the disorderly spread of urban construction land, the fragmentation of natural ecological environment, dense population, traffic congestion and so on. With the process of urbanization and motorization, the lifestyle of urban population has changed, and the disease spectrum and the sequence of death causes have changed. Chronic non-communicable diseases have replaced acute infectious diseases and become the primary threat to urban public health. According to the data published by the famous medical journal The LANCET on China's health care, the economic losses caused by five major non-communicable diseases (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) will reach US$23 trillion between 2012 and 2030, more than twice the total GDP of China in 2015 (US$11.7 trillion). Therefore, China proposes to implement the strategy of "Healthy China" and develop the policy of "integrating health into ten thousand strategies". Integrate health into the whole process of urban and rural planning, construction and governance to form a healthy, equitable and accessible production and living environment. China is building healthy cities through the above four strategies.The main strategies from national system design to local planning are as follows. First of all, the top-level design of the country. There are two main points: one point, the formulation of the Healthy China 2030 Plan determines the first batch of 38 pilot healthy cities and practices the strategy of healthy city planning; the other point, formulate and implement the national health city policy and issue the National Healthy City. The evaluation index system evaluates the development of local work from five aspects: environment, society, service, crowd and culture, finds out the weak links in the work in time, and constantly improves the quality of healthy city construction. Secondly, the reform of territorial spatial planning. In order to adapt to the rapid development of urbanization, China urban plan promote the reform of spatial planning system, change the layout of spatial planning into the fine management of space, and promote the sustainable development of cities. To delimit the boundary line of urban development and the red line of urban ecological protection and limit the disorderly spread of urban development as the requirements of space control. The bottom line of urban environmental quality and resource utilization are studied as capacity control and environmental access requirements. The grid management of urban built environment and natural environment is carried out, and the hierarchical and classified management unit is determined. Thirdly, the practice of special planning for local health and medical distribution facilities. In order to embody the equity of health services, including health equity, equity of health services utilization and equity of health resources distribution. For the elderly population, vulnerable groups and patients with chronic diseases, the layout of community health care facilities and intelligent medical treatment are combined to facilitate the "last kilometer" service of health care. Finally, urban repair and ecological restoration design are carried out. From the perspective of people-oriented, on the basis of studying the comfortable construction of urban physical environment, human behavior and the characteristics of human needs, to tackle "urban diseases" and make up for "urban shortboard".
Presenters Chengcheng LIU
Tianjin Urban Planning & Design Institute
Better places for a liveable - and lively - city: a method of Post-Occupancy Evaluation of public spaces.View Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
Public spaces that attract and retain diverse people are crucial to foster urbanity, tolerance and build stronger and livelier communities, especially in big cities. The simple coexistence of similarities and differences in the public space allows us, at least, a validation of our own essence and a possibility of growth. Sharing the same space with other people - even if we do not interact with them - favors social learning, whose theory believes that thought, feeling and behavior can be altered by observation. The search for public spaces that make urbanity viable is desirable in any society (especially in unequal societies, such as in developing countries). However, inspired by ideas developed from the critique of the great human agglomerations of cities after the Industrial Revolution, cities around the world have undergone transformations that did just the opposite. A series of lifeless places began to emerge, and several researchers then tried to figure out why this was happening. These researchers found that just wanting to make a lively place was not enough, that it was necessary to observe closely the behavior of people in public spaces to understand the relationship between configuration and use. The knowledge they have built has been largely responsible for the increasing concern with public spaces and their relation to public life, since the 1960s. Cities around the world, available for study and inspiration, are realizing that empty places could be full of people, and that not only a place full of people is something positive, but an empty place is not. They are learning to see underutilized public spaces as social, cultural, environmental, financial waste. However, even with so much information available, it is still possible to find, in any contemporary city, public spaces that fail to support public life. Frequently, little or nothing is done to make them more attractive, safe, diverse, pleasant to the citizen and, what is more concerning, spaces like these continue to be created. In this context, comes this paper. It brings together the knowledge and repertoire available on public spaces’ design and translates, complements and structures them into a method of Post-Occupancy Evaluation of public spaces. Stating that the observation of people and their activities is crucial, the method helps understanding, observing, evaluating and, thus, manipulating the main attributes of a public space that influence its possibilities to attract and retain diverse people, daily. It is offered as a tool to support those who deal with public spaces at different levels - from academic studies to municipal management – and has been used in Brasilia, Brazil, for the last 7 years, with positive results in governmental decision making. A case study is briefly presented to illustrate its use.
Presenters Gabriela De Souza Tenorio
Professor, University Of Brasilia
Sustainable Urban Development: Building Healthy Cities in IndonesiaView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
The urban process or commonly called urbanization is a phenomenon that is occurring in several regions in Indonesia. In 2045, the projection results show 61.7% of Indonesia's population will live in urban areas. In the process, cities in Indonesia are facing several challenges related to Urban Infrastructure, Decent and Affordable Housing, Clean Environment, Local Economic, Slum, and Urban Poor (Social welfare). These indicators can have a positive impact on increasing the city index with healthy city categories, but also can have a negative impact with the increasing gap between the poor and the rich. The purposes of this study are to find out what factors and actors play a role in building healthy cities in Indonesia and find out which cities in Indonesia fall into the category of healthy cities. The analytical method in this study is log frame analysis. The result is Building healthy cities is closely related to the availability of aspects of life in urban areas: Health services, Environmental, and Socioeconomic aspects. Building a healthy city is also an effort in Improving basic infrastructure, Improving local economic programs, Improving decent and affordable housing programs, Improving better environment programs, Upgrading Slum and Improving social welfare programs. The Aspects such as health care, environmental and socioeconomic will be achieved if efforts to improve (basic infrastructure, local economic, decent and affordable housing, better environment, slum and social welfare) are achieved. Finally, building a healthy city in Indonesia is an effort and contribution in sustainable urban development.
Presenters Daniel Mambo Tampi
Lecturer, National Institute Of Science And Technology
LD
Linda Darmajanti
Senior Lecturer, Urban Development Studies, Universitas Indonesia
IF
Irene Sondang Fitrinitia
Senior Researcher, Urban Development Studies, Universitas Indonesia
Health Districts: Creating Healthy CitiesView Abstract
Full Paper 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
Cities are critical to the efficient operation of society. Beyond just issues of quality of life, they are large consumers of natural resources. There is a growing concern that the form of cities may have a profound effect on public health: chronic diseases related to obesity, heart disease, and asthma, among many others. But in general, governments are making decisions about their development in the absence of critical data and analysis that provides direction for these actions. There is a clear need to establish research that provides a scientific basis for rationalizing city planning and urban design. This is an opportunity to use the protocols driving research to inform the methodology of urban and city design. We have, for the past eighty years or so, used a quasi-scientific set of criteria to direct and regulate the design and construction of our cities and districts towns and suburbs. From the very beginning, social-scientific measures formed the foundation of the professional planning movement. In this process, however, the rigors of basic research and scientific methods have been remarkably absent in reflection on the efficacy of planning’s impact on the built environment. Abstract planning principles are translated into operational regulations without a basic protocol for testing, evaluating, and modifying assumptions based on the results of evidence. The reticence of the profession to test and evaluate is further complicated by the fact that planning is ultimately implemented through a series of legal documents – regulations. Once adopted, regulations are notoriously difficult to change, both due to the precedential nature of the legal system itself and the seemingly inherent credibility bestowed upon regulation by virtue of its own adoption. At its core, the planning profession is charged with creating rules and guidelines for the development of urban and suburban places through constitutional police powers: to provide for the health, safety and welfare of the general public. Ultimately, effectiveness of planning means, such as zoning, can and should be measured. For example, Justice George Sutherland states that plans and their regulations must “expand or contract to meet the new and different conditions which are constantly coming within the field of their operation” in the seminal Supreme Court case, Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. (Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty CO, 1926). He went on to say that, “in a changing world it is impossible that it should be otherwise.” What Sutherland knew as a fact, and the planning profession seems unwilling to address, is that planning is only as good as its ability to positively affect the health, safety and welfare of the people in places it impacts. And, if our impacts are not positive, we are obligated by the law to improve our regulations. An internationally supported system of testing and evaluation protocols, both for proposed regulations and adopted regulations, is still absent from planning and urban design processes. Jurisdictions continue to rely on theory and precedents alone when adopting new regulations. Because of the significant impact that the built environment has on the health, safety and well-being of the general population, it seems logical that the profession would adopt scientific research protocols. This presentation will examine several specific cases across the globe, regulated and designed by a diverse group of professionals, that articulate the issues outlined above and provide methodologies to frame a scientific method for planning and urban design at a consistent, international level.
Presenters David Green
Principal, Global Practice Leader, Planning And Urban Design, Perkins+Will
IAP's Indonesia Most Livable City Index (MLCI): A Perception-Based Survey to Measure City Livability IndexView Abstract
Draft Presentation 02:00 PM - 03:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2019/09/11 12:00:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 13:30:00 UTC
In today's urbanizing world, where almost half of the world's population lives in cities, livable city is a necessity. City livability depends on how cities can provide safety and security for the peoples, fulfill their basic needs, provide easy access to public services and infrastructure, have a good quality of the environment, better economic, social and cultural conditions, assure citizen's participation, and others. Some parties measured city livability quantitatively using various criteria, such as OECD Better Life Index, Mercer Quality of Living Survey, Monocle Magazine's Most Livable City Index, The EIU Global Livability Survey, and Forbes Livable City Index, which then resulted in the list of most and worst livable cities in the world. These surveys have been globally trusted as a reliable, valid, and recognized index and have become global references. However, none of those surveys put citizen perception as the basis of measurement. They were based on secondary data, statistics, and were reviewed from the perspective of the researcher. None of the surveys had measured city livability based on citizen's perceptions. While perceptions are quite significant since it describes the real conditions perceived by the peoples. The "Indonesia Most Livable City Index (MLCI)" developed by the Indonesian Association of Planners (IAP) surveys city livability based on citizen's perceptions. This survey had been carried out since 2009 and was last held in early 2017. The indexing measurement was carried out based on 28 assessment criteria developed by the research team. MLCI 2017 surveys 26 cities throughout Indonesia by involving the IAP Regional Office voluntarily as surveyors. The survey resulted that the average livability index of Indonesian Cities was 62 of 100, which indicates that there were still many citizens who feel uncomfortable living in their cities. The survey had also resulted in groups of cities including the top tier cities, average tier cities, and bottom tier cities. Surveys that are held regularly have also been able to show an increase and decrease in the livability index of the city from period to period. In addition, from the survey results, it was found that what aspects were satisfying and unsatisfying according to citizens in each city surveyed. It can be learned that perception can be used to measure the city livability index and is worth considering as one of the legitimate methods of measuring the livability of a city. It can then be used as inputs for government and other stakeholders in terms of providing the citizen's needs.
Presenters Dayinta Pinasthika
Researcher, Indonesian Association Of Planners
PA
Puteri Rizqi Amelia
Associate Planner, Nusantara Urban Advisory
EH
Elkana Catur Hardiansah
Researcher, IAP
Adriadi Dimastanto
Researcher, Indonesian Association Of Urban And Regional Planners
Research and Planning Specialist
,
Housing Development Agency
Professor
,
University of Brasilia
Tianjin Urban Planning & Design Institute
Lecturer
,
National Institute of Science and Technology
Principal, Global Practice Leader, Planning and Urban Design
,
Perkins+Will
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