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Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B) TRACK 3: Liveable places and healthy cities
Sep 11, 2019 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) Switch to local time
20190911T1130 20190911T1300 Europe/Amsterdam 3.5 Sustainable Mobility and Streets for People Despite the potential of urbanisation to reduce distances, increase density of activities and enhance walking, biking and mass transit, transportation planning seems to prioritise individual car use. ... Hotel Borobudur Jakarta (Flores A+B) 55th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Jakarta/Bogor, Indonesia

Despite the potential of urbanisation to reduce distances, increase density of activities and enhance walking, biking and mass transit, transportation planning seems to prioritise individual car use. This leads to clogged street spaces, traffic injuries and polluted air. This session explores sustainable urban mobility strategies that prioritise the well-being of people and looks for inclusive solutions for all (gender, ages).

In between luxury of housing and affordability of transportation: Exploring automobile dependency of housing estate residents and kampung dwellers in suburban Bandung, Indonesia
11:30 AM - 01:00 PM2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Housing and transportation has become a pair of factors when it comes to decision of buying a house for the middle-income. This particular group of society is unique as they are aspired to luxury yet with limited affordability, particularly in the developing countries such as Indonesia. In many cases, housing estates are built in the form similar to gated community. Built in the suburban when usually the new housing estates are located quite in far distance to facilities, the residents are forced to own private vehicle(s) to conduct their daily activities. This situation shows the tendency of automobile dependence (Newman & Kenworthy, 1996; 1999). It has also been reflected in the vehicle ownership statistics figures and the notorious traffic congestion of Indonesian cities. The middle-income housing and their gated community has not only impacted their own travel pattern but also the residents living in kampung adjacent to their housing estate. Kampung dwellers have also reflected the middle-income characteristics with their lifestyle and automobile dependence. It has become eminent in suburban Bandung where pockets of kampung are found to be hidden amidst the housing estates whilst cars are parked on the roadsides. This is problematic in terms of affordability where they cannot really afford to own a car or motorbike as well as to rent a parking space since they usually live in small houses at kampung. To understand the above phenomenon, this paper tries to explore the extent of automobile dependency of the residents living at housing estate and its adjacent kampung at three locations in suburban Bandung. Data collected from observation, questionnaires and group interviews are descriptively analysed. Results have shown that most residents travel in far distance to reach their job location but do not travel in far distance to conduct their shopping, learning, and sporting activities tough some of them own a motorbike. The latter is due to the presence of mobile green grocers, warung, traditional markets, good quality schools, sport facilities and open spaces within walking distance to their houses. However, these facilities are visited mostly because there are access points through the housing estates made available for public use. Kampung alleys become connected to the streets within the housing estates. When these access points are restricted or non-existed, the travel pattern would differ as has been uttered by the kampung dwellers. In one of the cases, the following disconnections between the kampung alleys and streets of housing estates have made the kampung dwellers altered either the location or the transportation mode of their activities. There are lessons to be learned from these travel patterns. Housing estate development shall always have access to the kampung that have existed and vice versa. Such spatial connections will contribute to a change of travel behaviour from automobile dependence to active travel. However, it should be kept in mind that these results may not be generally applicable to other places with different socio-economic and spatial characters. Further work in the field may be benefited from more cases and larger population sample.
The Pedestrians’ Stories: Towards Walkable Cities in Indonesia
11:30 AM - 01:00 PM2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
The paper discusses the process of providing walkable pedestrian facilities in cities in Indonesia which is considered lacking due to the limited number and poor quality. In the past few years, the government has been improving and developing the walkable pedestrian through policy and regulation, as well as physical development. This action is also linked to the green city program, in particular, sustainable transportation. However, the physical development and implementation of policy and green city program are not as smooth as expected due to the limitation of urban space, human resources, and finance. The study focuses on identifying problems and introduces arrangements that could improve the quality of pedestrian facilities. It applies interviews, questionnaires, and design competition to gather input from the public. Three cities in Indonesia are selected as the case studies, namely, Bogor, Banjarmasin, and Semarang. In each city, the study looks into six zones, which are education, commercial, worship area, office, market and terminal, and the location of the design competition. The study analyses the walkability condition in each zone using nine parameters that emphasise on pedestrian conflict with other modes, availability of pedestrian path, availability of crossing, the safety of crossing, the behaviour of the motorcyclist, amenities, disable facility, buffer, and security. The finding points general problems such as poor amenities and lack of disabling facility, as well as the problem of motorcyclist behaviour. Besides problems, the study also identifies local potentials that could support the improvement of walkable pedestrian facilities. Those findings are important to improve the pedestrian facilities and develop an understanding of local condition since each city has different characteristics. The study applies those findings as an input to develop policy on the pedestrian facility of the green city for the Ministry of Public Works and Housing. The policy links to the green city program that addresses eight attributes, namely the green planning and design, open green space, green community, green waste, green energy, green transportation, green building, and green water. Further, the policy also emphasises five components of walkability, accessibility and connectivity, attractiveness, comfort and equality, safety, and security. Combination of green city attributes and walkability components are used for the planning-design and development of walkable pedestrian facilities in the urban area in Indonesia.
The definition of accessible routes on sidewalks: a new challenge for Brazilian cities
11:30 AM - 01:00 PM2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
Sidewalks in Brazilian cities still have physical conditions that hamper or even prevent pedestrians to move, especially those with disabilities. 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census indicated that 69% of urban households were benefited with sidewalks and that only 4.7% with ramps for wheelchair users. The same Census reported that Brazil had a contingent of more than 45.6 million people who declared themselves with disabilities, representing around 23% of Brazilian population. Federal legislation has advanced on setting up planning mechanisms aiming to build more accessible cities. Since 2015 Accessible Route Plans are mandatory for cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants or that integrate metropolitan areas, as part of a Municipal Comprehensive Plan. Despite improvements on legal provisions concerning accessibility, its fulfillment is still far away from what is desired. Among the set of functions that sidewalk provides, the clear path is the least considered in Brazil, because those responsible for infrastructure building over it do not usually regard its importance. Even today, it is common inadequate location of physical elements on sidewalks, such as access ramps of vehicles to buildings, electricity poles or street lighting, urban furniture etc., disrespecting universal accessibility in clear paths. Taking it into account, the purpose of this paper is to present a technical method to support local administrations in accessible route definition on downtown sidewalks, especially those with population under 20 thousand inhabitants, where sidewalks precariousness tends to be greater. The suggested method assumes two stages. The first one, explored in this paper, has a remote nature, using secondary data available from official sources of the three administrative spheres of the Federative Republic of Brazil. This first stage consists, basically, of 5 steps: i) Central Business District delimitation; ii) identification of CBD commercial and service units that act as pedestrian attractors; iii) accessible route definition connecting these units; iv) remote survey of sidewalks physical conditions in the predefined route; and v) preliminary proposal of physical interventions to guarantee universal accessibility in the defined route, with estimated costs. The second stage involves field surveys to complement data that allow the site diagnosis to build an executive project of the accessible route. To illustrate the application of the suggested method (first stage) it is presented a preliminary study of an accessible route on sidewalks in the central area of Quitandinha municipality – with approximately 5,000 urban inhabitants - located in Curitiba Metropolitan Area. Considering the diversities of physical elements placed on the sidewalks and of entities, whether public or private, responsible for their installation and maintenance, sidewalk regulations must be more significant in urban legislation to guarantee universal accessibility. The remote method proposed allows a previous wide comprehension of site problematic, compiling several types of spatializable secondary information in a single data base. In addition, this method makes it possible to propose sidewalks interventions aiming pedestrian universal accessibility, regardless previous field surveys. Despite these advantages, limits in its application occur in the case of cities whose streets are not totally covered by secondary source or when they are outdated. The proposed method, which is relatively easy to apply, is expected to stimulate: i) local administrations to evaluate their sidewalks situation and to include their suitability in their investment agendas considering accessibility requirements; and ii) regional and federal administrations to develop public policies to qualify urban environment.
Residents’ Perceptions of Walkability Attributes in Cold Region Chinese Cities: Reliability and Validity
11:30 AM - 01:00 PM2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
In the last two decades, Chinese cities experienced a rapid development stage. In recent years, urban environmental quality and urban vitality have attracted more and more scholars attention. In 1st tier cities like Beijing and Shanghai, there are many studies on the relationship between urban environment and travel behavior, especially walking. However, these studies pay more attention to macro scale rather than micro scale, in addition, as the influence of urban development and urban environment on walkability are varies by the difference of climate, economy and culture ,the results of currently research are not applicable to all cities. Because of the relatively slow pace of urban development and the relatively backward economic development, there are few studies on the walkability of the urban environment in the cold region cities in northern China. As affection of the extreme cold climate, a high walkability urban environment is needed to encourage residents’ physical activity, especially in winter. At the same time, the research results of relationship between micro scale urban environment and walkability can be more practically help improve the urban environment from the perspective of investment, in particular for the urban areas which are already been built and hard to make big scale regeneration. To test the influence of urban built environment on walkability in cold region Chinese cities, this study developed a questionnaire to perceive the residents’ perception of walkability around their neighborhood, which was based on the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Mainland China (NEWS-MC). The original Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale(NEWS) are developed for use in USA to measure residents’ perceptions of the environment attributes, and has been applied in many countries, such as US, Australia, Korea and Hong Kong, and be modifily to be Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Mainland China(NEWS-MC) and been applied in Chinese cities. NEWS-MC has been found have moderate to high rest-retest reliabilities and good criterion The evidence illustrated high-walkable neighborhoods be found with higher density , land-use mix, street connectivity, more safety and have more aesthetics elements. In this study, we modified NEWS-MC to reflect the characteristics of cold region Chinese built environment and people’s behavior mode. To perceive the final version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for cold region Chinese cities (NEWS-CRC), We made a pilot study which include 50 samples, then interview 800 residents from 6 selected residential districts in Harbin (the capital city with highest latitude in China) which were different in walkability attributes and economic status. The final version of the NEWS-CRC included 8 subscales and 3 single items (76 items in total). Test-retest reliability showed moderate to high except 4 items . In total, the NEWS-CRC could illustrate residents’ perceptions of walkability attributes in cold region Chinese cities and could be use in other Chinese urban attributes studies related to walking.
Research on the build of Healthy Walking System for Urban Central Business District: A Case Study of Jiangbeizui CBD in Chongqing, China
11:30 AM - 01:00 PM2019/09/11 09:30:00 UTC - 2019/09/11 11:00:00 UTC
1. Backgound & peoblems 1.1 CBD of China in the regeneration period : The development period of CBD can be described from the industrial scope, showing the upgrade of CBD’s function from traditional commercial to headquarters economy, which also displays different demand for urban space. In China, the construction of urban CBD in metropolitans began in 1990s, under the background of the reform and opening-up policy, and within a decade, most of the construction could be finished, and then goes into the special period, construction and regeneration run in parallel, together with urban vitality problems exposed. So it is an urgent to propose efficient regeneration strategies aimed at target problems. 1.2 Jiangbeizui CBD: facing more challenges and opportunities : Jiangbeizui CBD is located in the core of Chongqing, the municipality in southwest China. As the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, it bears the strategic significant duty for domestic and international economic communication in inland of China.While at the same time, Chongqing is also a famous mountain city, and Jiangbeizui CBD is at the intersection of two rivers (Yangtze River & Jialing River). The fluctuating terrain is not only the charm of the city, but also brings challenges to urban life. Urban CBD means high publicity for work, service and tourism, but in Jiangbeizui, the urban space is fragmented in function due to complex topography, including discontinuous mobility system, service system and fragmented landscape, which lead to the low vitality and inconvenience in daily work and life, showing low equality of space use and amenity. So initiatives have to be taken to react. 2. Related theory and research method 2.1 Theory about the healthy city : Jiangbeizui CBD now is at state of subhealth, which according to the WHO principle, it displays three unsatisfying perspectives: people lack of ways to promote physical and mental helath, and this cause low social well-being. After APA (American Planning Association) meeting in 2014, the concern has been extended to equality and help resolve the non-communicative diseases which caused by unhealthy lifestyle that may have reasons of urban design. So how to help Jiangbeizui CBD improve the life quality in regeneration (following the healthy city concept and propose strategies which can be implemented) is the main topic in this paper. 2.2 Analysis method : The basic study is literature review, to specify the main idea of healthy city and urban CBD development, and take references from cases. The key method is based on the urban regeneration project, including field research, interview and meetings with people (local resident, employees of companies at Jiangbeizui CBD and tourists) and data analysis which provided by the government. Data of geography, mobility system and urban landuse will be analyzed to explore the problem. 3. Conclusion & Strategies : Basically, there are two aspects to promote health in urban planning: one is to keep the bottom line of reducing pollution to help decrease human exposure risk, the other is to promote exercise. 3.1 The elements to build a healthy walking system in CBD : To encourage individuals to form better lifestyle, a healthy walking system was proposed based on the daily life route of different group of people, to link public transportation system, service nodes and landscape nodes, which creating intersection to inspire vitality. 3.2 Urban policy advices : Some problem of urban space is on account of urban management, advices about the planning and its implementation will also be proposed.
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 Laksmi Tungga Dewi Jaya  Wisnu Wardani
Reka Urban-Perubahan Iklim
 Marc Funda
Transport Planner
 Fenita Indrasari
Research Agency for Housing and Settlement
 Fernando Caetano
PARANACIDADE - Autonomous Social Service; Pontifical Catholic University of Parana
Municipal Development Analyst
 Yang Ye
Harbin Institute of Technology
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 Abdulrahman Mohamed A ELFAHD
Urban Planning Agency, Libya- Partners of the UN-Habitat, Sub-Regional Maghreb Office
Head of Urban Planning Department
Mrs Tikki  Mahayanti
Subdit Perencanaan Tata Ruang Nasional, Direktorat Perencanaan Tata Ruang
Kepala Seksi Perencanaan Tata Ruang Wilayah Nasional, Pulau dan Kepulauan
 Laili Fuji Widyawati
Universitas Esa unggul
Ketua Prodi Universitas Esa unggul
Mrs Itsari Wigati
Direktorat Pengendalian Pemanfaatan Ruang dan Penguasaan Tanah-Kementerian ATR
 Sylva Asihtrisna Asmarawati Irnadiastputri
Direktorat Pengendalian Pemanfaatan Ruang dan Penguasaan Tanah-Kementerian ATR
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